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Purine/Pyrimidine Synthesis


This is a mind map about purine and pyrimidine, synthesis and degradation
Nader I
Mind Map by Nader I, updated more than 1 year ago
Nader I
Created by Nader I over 6 years ago

Resource summary

Purine/Pyrimidine Synthesis
  1. Nucleotides
    1. Functions :Production of DNA and RNA Energy storage and transfer – ATP, GTP Coenzymes – NAD, FAD, Coenzyme A Activated compounds for synthesis – UDP sugars, CDP in phospholipid synthesis Methyl transfers – SAM Second messengers – cAMP, cGMP Enzyme regulation at allosteric sites
      1. Not from diet, exogenous nucleotide broken down
        1. Made De novo or Savage pathway, scrap together pieces
      2. Structure
        1. Nitrogenous base, pentose sugar, and phosphate groups
          1. Mostley made in lover some in brain, then transfer though blood
            1. Lots goes into making a purine ring, see below
      3. Purine synthesis
        1. starts with Ribose-5 P, from pentose phosphate pathway
          1. Add ATP to make PRPP
            1. Then add a bunch of Carbons and Nitrogens
              1. IN DETAIL
                1. 1.) Ribose 5P
                  1. ATP + PRPP synthetase
                    1. 2.) PRPP
                      1. glutamine phosphoribosyl amidotransferase
                        1. 3.) 5-phosphoribosyl 1 amine
                          1. Then add a Glycine molecule to it
                            1. + ATP
                              1. 4.) Glycinamide Ribosyl 5- Phosphate
                                1. ADD a Formyl carbon, a glutamine nitrogen, 2 ATP's
                                  1. 5.) This closes the linear structure into a ring
                                    1. Then you donate a carbon from CO2, a nitrogen from aspartate using ATP, then a formyl carbon
                                      1. 1st purine made IMP


                                        • Inosine Monophosphate
                                        1. Base is Hypoxanthine
                                          1. Requires 6 ATP's per purine
                                            1. Can be made into AMP and GMP
                                              1. AMP Production
                                                1. aspartate + GTP + adenylosuccinate synthetase
                                                  1. Adenylosuccinate
                                                    1. Remove a Fumarate
                                                      1. AMP
                                                        1. (-)
                                                    2. Symmetry
                                                  2. GMP production
                                                    1. IMP Dehydrogenase + NADH
                                                      1. XMP
                                                        1. ATP + Glutamine + GMP synthetase
                                                          1. GMP
                                                            1. (-)
                                                    2. Not in DNA, but is in tRNA
                                                      1. Causes wobble effect
                                        2. Committed Step to becoming a purine
                                          1. Glutamine give's Nitrogen
                                        3. Activated by P-, GDP & ADP inhibit
                            2. Pyrimidine Synthesis
                              1. First thing is to make the ring
                                1. Glutamine + CO2 + ATP
                                  1. Add aspartate, close the ring
                                    1. Add side chains
                                      1. Make Orotic Acid
                                        1. ADD PRPP
                                          1. UMP
                                            1. CTP
                                              1. dUMP
                                                1. dTMP
                                            2. Orotate phosphoribosyl transferase and orotidylic acid decarboxylase on the other, get to UMP
                                          2. CPS-II, aspartate transcarbamoylase and dihydroorotase all on one, produces orotate
                                            1. Aspartate is the majority of the ring, 4/6 C's, the rest is from carbamoyl phosphate, N from glutamine, C from CO2
                                        2. Salvage
                                          1. Free bases converted to nucleosides Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase uses ribose-1-phosphate Preferred reaction is synthesis, not degradation Kinases are more specific, get more specific as more phosphates are added
                                        3. Common Pathway
                                          1. NDP-> dNDP
                                            1. Ribonucleotide reductase + thioredoxin
                                              1. Allosteric Regulation
                                                1. One site regulates its activity
                                                  1. One regulates its specificity
                                          2. Purine Degradation
                                            1. Nucleotide -> nucleoside
                                              1. loss of amino group from adenosine
                                                1. Loss of sugar to free guanine or hypoxanthine Guanine loses amino,
                                                  1. Xanthine oxidase converts hypoxanthine and xanthine to urate
                                                    1. Excreted in urine, not very soluble Excess amounts can precipitate
                                            2. Pyrimidine Degradation
                                              1. Piece of Cake
                                                1. All products are water soluble
                                                  1. B-alanine
                                                    1. B-aminoisobutyrate
                                                      1. ammonia, water and carbon dioxide
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