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Chemical Synthesis

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Chemical Synthesis, C6 Mind-map
haydena
Mind Map by haydena, updated more than 1 year ago
haydena
Created by haydena over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Chemical Synthesis
  1. Chemicals
    1. Acids
      1. Neutralisation
        1. Solids
          1. e.g citric acid
          2. Liquids
            1. e.g sulphuric acid
            2. Gases
              1. e.g hydrogen chloride
                1. Hydrochloric Acid
                  1. HCl (aq)
              2. Hydrogen ions in solution
                1. Ions react to form Water
              3. Alkalis
                1. Neutralisation
                  1. Hydroxides of Na, K & Ca
                    1. Sodium Na Group 1
                      1. Potassium K Group 1
                        1. Calcium Ca Group 2
                          1. Hydreoxide ions in solution
                            1. H2O
                        2. pH
                          1. Indicators
                            1. Measurements
                              1. Universal Indicator
                                1. pH Meter
                                2. Scale
                                  1. pH 1-6 acidic
                                    1. pH 7 neutral
                                      1. pH 8-14 alkali
                                  2. Chemical Industry
                                    1. Products
                                      1. Fertilisers
                                        1. Nitrates
                                        2. Food additives
                                          1. Salt
                                          2. Pigments
                                            1. Dyes
                                              1. Drugs and medicines
                                              2. Raw Materials
                                                1. Crude Oil
                                                  1. Natural Gas
                                                    1. Chemicals from Plants
                                                      1. Fossil fuels
                                                        1. Coal
                                                        2. Bulk & Fine Chemicals
                                                          1. Bulk is made in mass
                                                            1. e.g Fertilisers
                                                            2. Fine is made in small amounts
                                                              1. e.g Medicine such as Steroids
                                                          2. Techniques
                                                            1. Dissolving
                                                              1. Crystallising
                                                                1. Filtering
                                                                  1. Evapourating
                                                                    1. Dryinig
                                                                      1. Titration
                                                                      2. Formulae
                                                                        1. Equations
                                                                          1. Ionic equations
                                                                            1. Neutralisation
                                                                            2. Balanced Equations
                                                                              1. Symbol equations
                                                                                1. Word Equations
                                                                                  1. Diagrammatical Equations
                                                                                  2. Formula Masses
                                                                                    1. Reacting massess
                                                                                      1. Titration results
                                                                                        1. Yields
                                                                                      2. Charges on ions
                                                                                        1. Ionic formulae
                                                                                          1. NaCl
                                                                                            1. Salt
                                                                                      3. Synthesis
                                                                                        1. Control
                                                                                          1. Rates
                                                                                            1. Catylst
                                                                                              1. A compound, mixture or element that speeds up a reaction
                                                                                              2. Temperature
                                                                                                1. Higher temperature = high rate
                                                                                                  1. Lower temperature = low rate
                                                                                                  2. Effect of concentration
                                                                                                    1. Higher concentration = high rate
                                                                                                      1. Lower concentration = low rate
                                                                                                        1. Collision Theory
                                                                                                        2. Effect of surface area of solids
                                                                                                          1. Collision theory
                                                                                                            1. Larger surface area = high rate
                                                                                                              1. Smaller surface area = low rate
                                                                                                            2. Energy changes
                                                                                                              1. Exothermic
                                                                                                                1. Giving out heat
                                                                                                                2. Endothermic
                                                                                                                  1. Taking heat in
                                                                                                              2. Stages
                                                                                                                1. 1. Choose the reaction
                                                                                                                  1. 2. Risk assessment
                                                                                                                    1. 3. Calculate quantities
                                                                                                                      1. 4. Carry out reaction
                                                                                                                        1. 5. Separate the product
                                                                                                                          1. 6. Purify the product
                                                                                                                            1. 7. Measure yield and check purity
                                                                                                                2. Making Salts
                                                                                                                  1. Carbonates
                                                                                                                    1. Salt + Carbon dioxide + Water
                                                                                                                    2. Metals
                                                                                                                      1. Salt + Hydrogen
                                                                                                                      2. Oxides and Hydroxides
                                                                                                                        1. Salt + Water
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