Please wait - loading…

Language & Thought


mind map
Mind Map by heavenstaar, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by heavenstaar over 6 years ago

Resource summary

Language & Thought
  1. Cognitive Revolution - of Cognition (thought) or mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge, has been studies since the first psychologists studied consciousness.
    1. Now we don’t use introspection, which was unreliable, but today cognitive psychologists study processes such as memory, language, problem solving and decision making.
    2. Properties of Language -1. Language is symbolic. 2. Language is semantic. 3. Language is generative. 4. Language is structured.
      1. Terms - Phonemes: smallest units of speech that can be distinguished perceptually. Morphemes: smallest units of meaning in a language. Semantics: meaning of words. Syntax: rules that state how words can be arranged into sentences.
        1. First year development - 12 – 18 months – one word sentence E.g. “juice” meaning, “I’d like some juice please”. They know 3-50 words at this age.
          1. Bilingualism - Bilingualism refers to learning 2 languages. There are some cognitive advantages though processing speed can be slower. Bilingual students are somewhat higher in their cognitive flexibility, reasoning, attention and metalinguistic awareness. If people learn their native language first and then a second language, it is easier if they learn younger.
            1. Theories of Language -
              1. . Behaviourist Theories: According to B.F. Skinner, children learn through imitation, reinforcement and conditioning.
                1. 2. Nativist Theories: Noam Chomsky and others argue that it is impossible for children to hear every possible sentence and be reinforced for it or to imitate it.
                  1. 3. Interactionist Theories: Interactionist theorists combine biology and experience.
                    1. Linguistic relativity hypothesis – one’s language determines the nature of thought. Different languages lead people to view the world differently.
                    2. Effects on problem solving - 1. Irrelevant Information: In problem solving, people may pay too much attention to information that does not solve the problem. 2. Functional Fixedness - This comes from Gestalt psychology and refers to thinking of something only in terms of its most common use.
                      1. Hinder problem solving - 3. Mental Set - continuing to use a problem solving strategy that worked in the past when it is not the best solution. Being in a rut in your thinking. & 4. Unnecessary constraints: Constraints are the limits. If you put unnecessary limits on yourself, it will be harder to solve the problem.
                      2. Solving Problems - Trial and error - try something to see if it works and if not don’t use it again until you find what works. Algorithm - methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all the possible alternatives for reaching a solution to a problem. Heuristics - mental shortcuts, guiding principle or “rule of thumb” used to solve problems or make decisions.
                        Show full summary Hide full summary


                        English Grammatical Terminology
                        Fionnghuala Malone
                        English Literary Terminology
                        Fionnghuala Malone
                        A Level: English language and literature technique = Dramatic terms
                        Jessica 'JessieB
                        A Level: English language and literature techniques = Structure
                        Jessica 'JessieB
                        A Level: English language and literature techniques = Form
                        Jessica 'JessieB
                        English Rhetorical Device Terminology
                        Fionnghuala Malone
                        Linguistic Methods
                        A2 English Language and Literature: Unseen
                        Jessica 'JessieB
                        Theories, Theorists and Tests
                        English Language
                        English Speech Analysis Terminology
                        Fionnghuala Malone