Penny Marsden
Mind Map by Penny Marsden, updated more than 1 year ago
Penny Marsden
Created by Penny Marsden about 6 years ago


A-Level Biology Mind Map on Chloroplasts, created by Penny Marsden on 12/05/2015.

Resource summary

  1. Structure
    1. inner membrane contains transport proteins
      1. allows an exchange of substances between cytoplasm and stroma
        1. link
      2. stacked thylakoid membranes increase surface area for photosynthetic pigments, electron carriers and ATP synthase enzymes
        1. assists light dependant stage of photosynthesis
        2. photosynthetic pigments arranged into photosystems
          1. allows maximum absorption of light energy
          2. grana are sorrounded by the stroma
            1. products of light dependant can pass into stroma for light independant
              1. link
            2. stroma contains enzymes to catalyse reactions of light independant
              1. increases rate of light independant
              2. proteins embedded in grana
                1. hold photosystem in place
                2. chloroplasts contain basic ribosomes and DNA
                  1. can make some of the protein needed for photosynthesis
                3. Photosynthetic pigments
                  1. absorbs certain wavelengths of light and reflects others
                    1. appears as colour that it reflects
                    2. many different pigments act together
                      1. to capture as much light energy as possible
                      2. they're found in thylakoid membranes
                        1. arranged in photosystems (funnel shape)
                      3. Chlorophyll
                        1. a mixture of pigments of similar structure
                          1. one long phytol (hydrocarbon) chain and porphryn group (similar to haem group but with magnesium atom)
                          2. when the right wavelengh of light hits it, two electrons become excited
                            1. chlorophll A is yellow-green and can either be P680 or P700
                              1. each absorbs red light at a slightly different wavelength (absorption peak)
                                1. both found at the centre of photosystems (primary pigment reaction centre)
                                  1. P680 is in photosytem 2 and its peak absoption is 680 nm
                                    1. P700 is in photosystem 1 and its peak absoption is 700 nm
                                      1. both also absorb blue light of wavelength 450 nm
                                      2. chlorophll B absorbs light of wavelengths around 500 and 640 nm
                                        1. appears blue-green
                                      3. Accessory pigments
                                        1. carotenoids reflect orange and yellow light and absorb blue
                                          1. carotene (orange) and xanthophyll (yellow) are the main carotenoid pigments
                                          2. don't contain a porphryin group
                                            1. they're not directly involved in the light dependant reaction
                                              1. they pass the energy associated with wavelengths that are not well absorbed by chlorophyll to the primary pigment
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