1.1 MARXISTS from the CCCS believe that things such as high unemployment,
inner city decay, racial tensions and strikes lead to
spectacular youth subcultures.
1.1.1 SPECTACULAR YOUTH CULTURES - A group of most of the time young people who share
the same norms and values and can often be seen as
resisting against society. Examples of theses are;
Punks, Mods, Skinheads, Teddyboys
188.8.131.52 HALL & JEFFERSON - TEDDYBOYS : In the 1950s there was high
employment. They felt that youths were excluded and therefore felt
resentful. They used jackets to symbolise them trying to be like their
middle class superiors.
184.108.40.206 HEBDIGE - MODS: The 1960s had high employment for youths. Working
class people used their own money to create a style which was
resistant to middle class. They had Italian suits and scooters in order to
show they could be smart and cool
220.127.116.11 CLARKE - SKINHEADS: In the 1970s involved things such as unemployment,
decline of working class industries and racial tensions. Clarke thought that
working class identity was under threat due to economic conditions. This led
them to over-exaggerating it as a form of resistance. E.g. denim, dungarees,
steel toe caps
18.104.22.168.1 PHIL COHEN - SKINHEADS: HE believes they feel
threatened and focus on reclaiming territory (racism). He
also thinks that football hooliganism is an expression of
ownership of the ground and surrounding area.
22.214.171.124 HEBDIGE - PUNKS: They were around in the 1970s.
Hebdige believes that they resist against the
dominance of mainstream media and fashion
industries because they tell youths how to be.
126.96.36.199 Neo-tribes are people who pick n mix from other
youth subcultures and don't fully commit to all of
the norms and values of any youth subculture.
This can also be seen as consumer culture.
1.3 FUNCTIONALISTS believe that being in a youth culture is just a
faze or transitional stage of growing up, and is functional for
1.3.1 Key ideas
188.8.131.52 Integration and
184.108.40.206 Social solidarity and value consensus
220.127.116.11 Want to avoid 'ANOMIE' so
isolation and homelessness