Transporting Materials

Alfonzzzo R
Mind Map by Alfonzzzo R, updated more than 1 year ago
Alfonzzzo R
Created by Alfonzzzo R over 4 years ago
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Mindmap for AQA GCSE Biology B3.2 - Transporting Materials
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Transporting Materials
1 The Circulatory System
1.1 Definition: The network of veins, capillaries and arteries that transports blood around the body.
1.2 The Heart
1.2.1 The heart operates a double circulation in which one goes to and from the lungs and the other goes to and from the rest of the body.
1.2.2 Pumps the blood around the body and is mostly made up of muscle tissues.
1.2.3
1.2.3.1 Arteries
1.2.3.1.1 Arteries have thick walls containing muscle and elastic fibres.
1.2.3.1.2 If they begin to narrow, stents are used to keep them open.
1.2.3.2 Veins
1.2.3.2.1 Have thin walls and often have valves to prevent blood going backwards.
1.2.3.3 Capillaries
1.2.3.3.1 Capillaries are thin-walled and allow diffusion of materials into and out of the blood into the surround organs.
1.2.4 1. Blood enters the heart at the atria, which contracts and forces the blood into the ventricles.
1.2.4.1 2. The ventricles contract forcing the blood out of the heart.
1.2.5 Valves in the heart ensure that no blood flows the wrong way
1.2.6 Blood from the heart goes into arteries and comes back in veins.
2 Artificial Parts
2.1 Artificial Blood
2.1.1 Advantages
2.1.1.1 Increased shelf life compared to normal blood.
2.1.1.2 Does not need refrigeration.
2.1.1.3 More efficient at carrying oxygen.
2.1.1.4 No need for blood match.
2.1.2 Disadvantages
2.1.2.1 Short lasting for use.
2.1.2.2 It is very expensive.
2.2 Artificial Heart
2.2.1 Advantages
2.2.1.1 No chance of it being rejected.
2.2.1.2 Keeps the patient alive whilst waiting for a donor.
2.2.2 Disadvantages
2.2.2.1 Requires a power supply.
2.2.2.2 Surgery can lead to bleeding and infection.
2.2.2.3 Blood does not flow as well so blood thinners may be needed to prevent clotting.
2.2.2.4 Parts can wear out or stop over time.
2.3 Artificial Heart Valves
2.3.1 Advantages
2.3.1.1 Success rate is high.
2.3.1.2 Prolong life expectancy.
2.3.1.3 Can last up to 20 years.
2.3.2 Disadvantages
2.3.2.1 May need blood thinners to prevent clotting.
2.3.2.2 Surgery can lead to serious injury and complications.
2.4 Stents
2.4.1 Advantages
2.4.1.1 Success rate is high.
2.4.1.2 Lowers the risk of heart problems/attacks.
2.4.1.3 Have a long lifetime.
2.4.2 Disadvantages
2.4.2.1 Complications can occur.
2.4.2.2 Arteries can sometimes re-close.
2.4.2.3 Drugs needed to stop blood from clotting.
3 Blood
3.1 Definition: A tissue consisting of plasma, red and white blood cells and platelets.
3.2 It transports...
3.2.1 CO2 from the organs to the lungs.
3.2.2 Soluble products of digestion from the small intestines to other organs.
3.2.3 Urea from the liver to the kidneys.
3.3 Red blood cells transport oxygen to the organs. They have no nucleus and are packed with a red pigment called haemoglobin. It is this substance that bonds with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin in the lungs.
3.4 White blood cells have a nucleus and are part of the immune system.
3.5 Platelets are fragments with no nucleus and help to clot at a wound by producing protein threads.
4 Plants
4.1 Xylem transport water and mineral ions from the roots to the stem and leaves.
4.2 The movement of water from the roots to the rest of the plant is called the transpiration stream.
4.3 Phloem tissue carry dissolved sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant, including where it is growing and the storage organs.
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