1.1 Definition: The network of veins,
capillaries and arteries that
transports blood around the body.
1.2 The Heart
1.2.1 The heart operates a double
circulation in which one goes to and
from the lungs and the other goes
to and from the rest of the body.
1.2.2 Pumps the blood around
the body and is mostly
made up of muscle tissues.
18.104.22.168.1 Arteries have thick
walls containing muscle
and elastic fibres.
22.214.171.124.2 If they begin to narrow, stents are used to keep them open.
126.96.36.199.1 Have thin walls and often have valves
to prevent blood going backwards.
188.8.131.52.1 Capillaries are thin-walled and allow
diffusion of materials into and out of
the blood into the surround organs.
1.2.4 1. Blood enters the heart at
the atria, which contracts
and forces the blood into
184.108.40.206 2. The ventricles
contract forcing the
blood out of the heart.
1.2.5 Valves in the heart ensure that no blood flows the wrong way
1.2.6 Blood from the heart goes into arteries and comes back in veins.
2 Artificial Parts
2.1 Artificial Blood
220.127.116.11 Increased shelf life compared to normal blood.
18.104.22.168 Does not need refrigeration.
22.214.171.124 More efficient at carrying oxygen.
126.96.36.199 No need for blood match.
188.8.131.52 Short lasting for use.
184.108.40.206 It is very expensive.
2.2 Artificial Heart
220.127.116.11 No chance of it being rejected.
18.104.22.168 Keeps the patient alive whilst waiting for a donor.
22.214.171.124 Requires a power supply.
126.96.36.199 Surgery can lead to bleeding and infection.
188.8.131.52 Blood does not flow as well
so blood thinners may be
needed to prevent clotting.
184.108.40.206 Parts can wear out
or stop over time.
2.3 Artificial Heart Valves
220.127.116.11 Success rate is high.
18.104.22.168 Prolong life expectancy.
22.214.171.124 Can last up to 20 years.
126.96.36.199 May need blood thinners to prevent clotting.
188.8.131.52 Surgery can lead to serious injury and complications.
184.108.40.206 Success rate is high.
220.127.116.11 Lowers the risk of heart problems/attacks.
18.104.22.168 Have a long lifetime.
22.214.171.124 Complications can occur.
126.96.36.199 Arteries can sometimes re-close.
188.8.131.52 Drugs needed to stop blood from clotting.
3.1 Definition: A tissue consisting
of plasma, red and white
blood cells and platelets.
3.2 It transports...
3.2.1 CO2 from the organs to the lungs.
3.2.2 Soluble products of digestion from the small intestines to other organs.
3.2.3 Urea from the liver to the kidneys.
3.3 Red blood cells transport
oxygen to the organs. They have
no nucleus and are packed with
a red pigment called
haemoglobin. It is this substance
that bonds with oxygen to form
oxyhaemoglobin in the lungs.
3.4 White blood cells have a nucleus and
are part of the immune system.
3.5 Platelets are fragments with no
nucleus and help to clot at a wound
by producing protein threads.
4.1 Xylem transport water and mineral ions from the roots to the stem and leaves.
4.2 The movement of water from the
roots to the rest of the plant is
called the transpiration stream.
4.3 Phloem tissue carry dissolved
sugars from the leaves to the rest
of the plant, including where it is
growing and the storage organs.