The Industrial Age

Emily Smerkiin
Mind Map by Emily Smerkiin, updated more than 1 year ago
Emily Smerkiin
Created by Emily Smerkiin over 4 years ago


Section 1: The Second Industrial Revolution Section 2: Bug Business Section 3: Industrial Workers

Resource summary

The Industrial Age
1 The Second Industrial Revolution
1.1 Period of rapid growth in US manufacturing
1.1.1 US became world industrial leader
1.2 Steel Industry
1.2.1 Steel Iron made stronger by heat and other metals Major in revolution
1.2.2 Bessemer Process Steel making by blasting hot air through melted iron to purify it Cheap & efficient Increased production to more than 1 million tons per year
1.3 Railroad
1.3.1 Low steel prices = Low railroad manufacturing prices Thousands of miles of new track
1.3.2 Passenger and sleeping cars improved passenger service
1.3.3 Refrigerator cars allowed perishable products to be shipped to markets
1.3.4 Free tickets for settlers increased western growth Cities developed
1.4 Oil and Electricity
1.4.1 Oil Crude oil --> Kerosene Cooking, heating, lighting Edwin L. Drake proved possible to pump crude oil from ground Wildcatters Oil prospectors Drilled for oil in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia
1.4.2 Electricity Thomas Edison Built electricity power plants for big cities George Westinghouse Built system that could send electricity over miles
1.5 Inventions
1.5.1 Thomas Edison Lightbulb
1.5.2 Alexander Graham Bell Telephone
1.5.3 Gasoline-powered engine Increased demand for oil production
1.5.4 Henry Ford Model T Assembly line
1.5.5 Wilbur and Orville Wright Airplane Orville Wright Made fist piloted flight in gas-powered plane Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
2 Industrial Workers
2.1 Working Conditions
2.1.1 Machines run by unskilled workers Eliminated jobs of skilled craftspeople
2.1.2 Specialization Workers repeat single step over and over Cheap and efficient Made workers tired, bored, and injury-prone
2.1.3 Frederick W. Taylor Encouraged managers to view workers as interchangeable parts
2.2 Labor Unions
2.2.1 Knights of Labor Members Skilled and unskilled workers Beliefs 8-hour workday Equal pay End child labor Government regulated trusts Terence V. Powderly Leader of Knights Ended secrecy and formed first labor union
2.2.2 American Federation of Labor (AFL) Samuel Gompers Beliefs Better wages Better hours Better conditions Organized individual national unions Members Skilled workers Great bargaining power Collective Bargaining All workers acting collectively have greater chance of success Larger membership than Knights
2.2.3 Mary Harris Jones Irish immigrant woman that worked for better mining conditions Strikes Helped educate workers
2.3 Labor Strikes
2.3.1 Chicago Strike Thousands went on strike for 8-hour workday Two killed in fight with police
2.3.2 Haymarket Riot Someone threw bomb that wounded police officers and killed eight Police opened fire and killed several and wounded 100 Eight people arrested One had Knights membership card Knights leadership had not supported but local chapters had Knights membership fell
2.3.3 Homestead Strike Protested plan to buy new machinery and cut jobs Andrew Carnegie's Homestead Steel Factory in Pennsylvania Refused to negotiate and locked workers out Hired strike breakers to work Workers seized control of plant Gunfire erupted when Pinkerton detectives hired by company tried to enter plant Lasted 4 months Union defeated
2.3.4 Pullman Strike Stopped traffic on railroads till courts ordered workers to work again George Pullman's Pullman Palace Car Company in Pullman, Illinois Workers paid high rents Pullman laid off half of workers and cut pay for remaining but did not lower rents President Grover Cleveland sent troops to stop strike Union defeated
3 Business
3.1 Corporations
3.1.1 Businesses that sell stocks Stock Shares of company ownership
3.1.2 Stockholders Get percentage of profits Elect board of directors to choose leaders Not responsible for business debt Only lose money invested in company if fails Can sell stock to whomever whenever
3.1.3 Encouraged investment
3.2 Business Leaders
3.2.1 Andrew Carnegie Scottish immigrant worked on railroad Became railroad superintendent Steel Bought out competitors when steel prices were low and expanded business Vertical Integration Ownership of businesses involved in each step of process Philanthropist Pressured railroads into charging them lower shipping rates
3.2.2 Leland Stanford Governor of California Founder of California's Central Pacific Railroad Founder of Stanford University Argued industries should be managed by workers
3.2.3 John D. Rockefeller Oil Largest oil refiner in country Started Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company while partner in wholesale business Vertical Integration Horizontal Integration Ownership of businesses in field Monopoly Total ownership of product/service Trust Grouping companies under a board of directors Philanthropist Pressured railroads to charge lower shipping rates
3.3 Trusts
3.3.1 Social Darwinism Based on Charles Darwin natural selection theory "Survival of the fittest" Decided who would succeed in business and life
3.3.2 Philanthropy Giving money to charities Believed rich had duty to aid poor
3.3.3 The Antitrust Movement Causes Large corporations often drove smaller competitors out of business Powerful trusts arranged to sell goods below market value Smaller competitors went out of business trying to match prices When competitors fail, trust raises prices again Competition kept prices low and quality high People wanted government to interfere Congress favored businesses Sherman Antitrust Act Illegal to create monopolies of trusts that restrained trade Did not clearly define trust in legal terms Difficult to enforce Corporations continued to grow
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