Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

(Psychology Core Studies - The Developmental Approach) Mind Map on Bandura, created by Rosalind123 on 12/31/2013.

Created by Rosalind123 almost 6 years ago
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1 Context
1.1 Social Learning Theory
1.1.1 We learn by observing and imitating others
1.2 Behaviourist Perspective
2 Method
2.1 Laboratory experiment
2.2 Independent variable manipulated in three conditions: 1. Agressive model 2. Non-aggressive model 3. no model shown (control)
2.3 Participants
2.3.1 72 children (36 boys, 36 girls) from a nursery in Stanford University, California - aged 3-5 (mean= 4.3 yrs) 24 children in aggressive condition and 24 children in non-aggressive condition 6 girls in each group with same sex model 6 girls in each group with opposite sex model 6 boys in each group with same sex model 6 boys ineach group with opposite sex model 24 children in control group
2.4 Matched pairs design
2.4.1 Nursery school teacher and experimenter rated each child's aggressiveness out of 5 in each category: physical aggression, verbal aggression, aggression towards inanimate objects and aggressive inhibition. This was done so each group of children had equally varying levels of agression
2.5 Time sample
3 Aim
3.1 To demonstrate that learning can occur through observation of a model and that imitation can occur in the absence of that model
4 Hypotheses
4.1 1. Children exposed to aggressive models will reproduce acts of aggression
4.1.1 2. Children exposed to less aggressive models will reproduce less aggressive acts
4.1.2 3. Children will imitate the behaviour of a same-sex model to a greater degree than a model of the opposite sex
4.1.3 4. Boys will be more predisposed than girls towards imitating aggression
5 Procedure
5.1 STAGE 1
5.1.1 Children brought into room by experimenter, followed by model. Children became settled by playing with potato cutters and prints in corner of room Aggressive condition Model played with tinker toys for 1 min, then turned to Bobo doll e.g. shouting 'POW!' when hitting Bobo doll Striking Bobo doll on head with a mallet Non-aggressive condition Model played quietly with non-aggressive toys e.g. assembling tinker-toys, in opposite corner of room. Model ignored Bobo doll
5.2 STAGE 2
5.2.1 Child subjected to 'mild aggression arousal' Child taken to a room with attractive toys. After a short time playing with them, they were taken away by the experimenter, who told the child that the toys were special, and reserved for the other children To give all groups a chance of showing aggression
5.3 STAGE 3
5.3.1 Children shown into another room which contained aggressive toys (Bobo doll, mallet, dartguns...) and non-aggressive toys (tea set, dolls, crayons...) Judges observed children through a one-way mirror for 20 mins and recorded behaviours in 5-second intervals. CATEGORIES OF BEHAVIOUR Imitation behaviour of aggressive model (inc. physical, verbal and non-aggressive speech e.g. "he sure is a tough fella") Partial imitation behaviour of aggressive model e.g. use of mallet against other objects/sitting on Bobo doll without hitting it Non-imitative physical and verbal aggression e.g.physical aggression against other objects/verbal non-imitative remarks e.g. 'shoot the Bobo' Non-aggressive behaviour e.g. sitting quietly
6 Results
6.1 1. The children in the aggressive condition made more aggressive responses than the children in the non-aggressive and control groups
6.2 2. Boys made more aggressive responses than girls
6.3 3. Boys in the aggressive model condition showed more aggressive responses is the model was male
6.3.1 Boys perceive similarities between themselves and the model Based upon development of child's gender identity
6.4 4. Girls in aggressive condition showed more physical responses if model was male, but imitated verbal aggression more if model was female.
6.5 Bandura reported that the children were confused by female model, perhaps because of what the children had learned about culturally appropriate behaviour, e.g. a child commented; "That's not the way for a lady to behave". However, the aggressive acts made by the male model were more accepted
6.6 Inter-rater reliability: 0.9
7 Evaluation
7.1 Experimental method = can establish causal relationship as all other variables were controlled. The aggressiveness of model did have an effect on child's subsequent behaviour.
7.2 Procedure is standardised and replicable
7.3 Low ecological validity; no interaction between child and model at any point + they are strangers = not like a situation at home with parents. Also, Bobo doll may be unknown to children
7.4 Snapshot study: A single exposure of aggressiveness may not have long-term effects
8 Improvements
8.1 Change to longitudinal: Children could observe model and then be observed each month for a year to see how much they have retained
8.1.1 Problem: participant attrition
8.1.2 Will be able to see development
8.2 ...ecological validity
8.2.1 Show children a short film that includes aggression and then see how they directly imitate certain behaviours in their own natural environment e.g. playground

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