GCSE AQA Chemistry 3 Organic Chemistry

Lilac Potato
Mind Map by Lilac Potato, updated more than 1 year ago
Lilac Potato
Created by Lilac Potato over 5 years ago
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Description

Mind map showing information about reversible reactions, the Haber process, alcohols, carboxylic acids & esters

Resource summary

GCSE AQA Chemistry 3 Organic Chemistry
  1. Reversible Reactions
    1. Products of reaction can react to produce original reactants
      1. Reaches equilibrium in closed system
        1. Amount of reactants & products reach certain balance & stay there
          1. Reactions taking place at same rate
          2. Temperature
            1. Raise temp.
              1. Endo reaction increases
              2. Lower temp.
                1. Exo reaction increases
              3. Pressure
                1. Raise pressure
                  1. Encourages reaction which produces less volume
                  2. Lower pressure
                    1. Encourages reaction which produces more volume
                  3. Catalyst
                    1. Reaches equilibrium faster but end up with same amount of product
                  4. Haber Process
                    1. nitrogen + hydrogen --> ammonia (+ heat)
                      1. Nitrogen from air - 78%
                        1. Hydrogen comes from natural gas/crude oil
                          1. Reversible reaction - reaches equilibrium
                          2. Industrial conditions: 200 atmospheres, 450*C, iron catalyst
                            1. Higher pressure favours forward reaction
                              1. High as possible - high % yield
                              2. Forward reaction - exo
                                1. Increasing temp. will move equilibrium wrong way - yield better at lower temp.
                                  1. Lower temp. = lower rate of reaction
                                    1. 450*C is a compromise
                                2. Iron catalyst speeds up reaction & keeps costs down
                                3. Alcohols
                                  1. General Formula: Cn H2n+1 OH
                                    1. Flammable - burn in air to produce CO2 & water
                                      1. Dissolve completely in water --> neutral solutions
                                        1. React with sodium to give hydrogen & alkoxides
                                      2. Used as solvents
                                        1. Can dissolve substances water can't dissolve
                                          1. Ethanol - solvent for perfumes
                                            1. Methylated spirit - ethanol, clean paint brushes, poisonous, purply-blue dye added
                                            2. Used as fuels
                                              1. Ethanol in spirit burners
                                                1. Fuel for cars - renewable
                                            3. Carboxylic Acids
                                              1. Functional group: -COOH
                                                1. Names end in -anoic acid'
                                                  1. React like other acids with carbonates --> CO2
                                                    1. Salts formed end in -anoate
                                                    2. Dissolve in water to produce acidic solutions
                                                      1. Ionise & release H+ ions - but don't ionise completely --> weak acidic solutions
                                                      2. Ethanoic acid dissolved in water - vinegar
                                                        1. Citric acid - fizzy drinks, get rid of scale
                                                          1. Longer chains - soaps & detergents
                                                            1. Esters
                                                              1. Ethanoic acid - v. good solvent but acidic
                                                          2. Esters
                                                            1. alcohol + carboxylic acid --> ester + water
                                                              1. Acid catalyst used
                                                              2. Functional group: -COO-
                                                                1. Have pleasant smells, volatile, flammable, dangerous, don't mix v. well with water, do mix well with alcohols
                                                                  1. Used in perfumes, to make flavourings, ointments & solvents for paint, ink, glue
                                                                    1. Problems...
                                                                      1. Inhaling fumes irritates mucus membranes
                                                                        1. Heavier than air, v. flammable
                                                                          1. Some toxic - health problems with synthetic food additives?
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