Atomic structure

Jack Willepotte
Mind Map by Jack Willepotte, updated more than 1 year ago
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Mind Map on Atomic structure, created by Jack Willepotte on 03/20/2016.
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Atomic structure
1 Plum Pudding model
1.1 It was previously believed atoms were the smallest particles that existed
1.2 In 1804 Dalton agreed with Democritus, that matter was made up of atoms which couldn't be broken up but he thought each element was made of a different type of atom
1.2.1 In 1897 J.J Thompson discovered tiny, negatively charged particles(electrons) and that atoms can give out electrons so Dalton's theory was slightly wrong as atoms could be broken up
1.2.1.1 Thompson suggested atoms were spheres of positive charge with tiny negative electrons stuck in them - like plums in a plum pudding
1.2.1.1.1 However the 'plum pudding' theory didn't last long as in 1909 Rutherford and Marsden fired a beam of alpha particles at thin gold foil, a slight deflection of the positive alpha particles was expected to be caused by the electrons in the 'plum pudding' model
1.2.1.1.1.1 However - most alpha particles just went straight through with the odd one coming straight back at them, which was a bit of a shocker
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Rutherford and Marsden realized this meant most of an atoms mass was in its centre in a tiny nucleus they also realized the nucleus must have a large positive charge since positive alpha particles were repelled at such large angles
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 The experiment also showed that most of an atom is just empty space which was also shocking as atoms make up everything
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 In short Rutherford concluded: Most an atom is empty space, Most of an atoms mass is compressed into a tiny central volume called a nucleus and that an atoms nucleus has an overall positive charge
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Rutherford and Marsden came up with the nuclear model of the atom
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Nucleus is tiny but makes up most the atoms mass, it contains protons(positive charge) & neutrons(neutral charge) so overall positive charge on nucleus
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The rest of the atom is mostly empty space
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Negative electrons whizz round the outside of the nucleus and give the atom its overall size
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 atoms have no overall charge an electrons charge size is the same as a protons but opposite
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 This means the number of protons and electrons is always equal in a neutral atom
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 If electrons are added or removed the atom becomes a charged particle called an ion
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