Renaissance

Hanli Seon
Mind Map by Hanli Seon, updated more than 1 year ago
Hanli Seon
Created by Hanli Seon almost 4 years ago
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Renaissance Mind Map - Hanli Seon

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Renaissance

Annotations:

  • The Renaissance was a time of "coming out of the dark". It was a rebirth of education, science, art, literature, music, and a better life for people in general. A big part of the Renaissance was a cultural movement called humanism. Humanism was a philosophy that all people should strive to be educated and learned in the classical arts, literature, and science. It looked for realism and human emotion in art. It also said that it was okay for people to pursue comfort, riches, and beauty. During the era known by this name, Europe emerged from the economic stagnation of the Middle Ages and experienced a time of financial growth. Also, and perhaps most importantly, the Renaissance was an age in which artistic, social, scientific, and political thought turned in new directions. In the work of the Renaissance all the great nations of Europe shared. But it must never be forgotten that, as a matter of history, the true Renaissance began in Italy. It was there that the essential qualities which distinguish the modern from the ancient and the mediaeval world were developed. Italy created that new spiritual atmosphere of culture and of intellectual freedom which has been the life-breath of the European races. As the Jews are called the chosen and peculiar people of divine revelation, so may the Italians be called the chosen and peculiar vessels of the prophecy of the Renaissance. In art, in scholarship, in science, in the mediation between antique culture and the modern intellect, they took the lead, handing to Germany and France and England the restored humanities complete. Spain and England have since done more for the exploration and colonization of the world. Germany achieved the labor of the Reformation almost single-handed. France has collected, centralized, and diffused intelligence with irresistible energy. But if we return to the first origins of the Renaissance, we find that, at a time when the rest of Europe was inert, Italy had already begun to organize the various elements of the modern spirit, and to set the fashion whereby the other great nations should learn and live.
1 Rebirth of Classical Ideas

Annotations:

  • The Italian Renaissance had placed human beings once more in the center of life's stage and infused thought and art with humanistic values. In time the stimulating ideas current in Italy spread to other areas and combined with indigenous developments to produce a French Renaissance, an English Renaissance, and so on. The term Renaissance, literally means "rebirth" and is the period in European civilization immediately following the Middle Ages, conventionally held to have been characterized by a surge of interest in classical learning and values. The Renaissance also witnessed the discovery and exploration of new continents, the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy, the decline of the feudal system and the growth of commerce, and the invention or application of such potentially powerful innovations as paper, printing, the mariner's compass, and gunpowder. To the scholars and thinkers of the day, however, it was primarily a time of the revival of classical learning and wisdom after a long period of cultural decline and stagnation.
1.1 Ancient Greece and Rome

Annotations:

  • The word “Renaissance” literally means rebirth, therefore the Renaissance period was the rebirth of classical Greek and Roman culture. The traditional view of the Renaissance was that it suddenly emerged as a result of the fall of Constantinople in 1453, which drove Greek scholars to seek refuge in Italy and pass classical culture to Italy. Historians now take this as too simplistic an explanation. For one thing, knowledge of Greek and Roman culture had never completely died out in medieval Europe, being kept alive during the Dark Ages in the monasteries, and during the High Middle Ages in the growing universities. Secondly, a revived interest in classical culture can be traced back to the Italian authors, Dante and Petrarch, in the early 1300's. Thus the Italian Renaissance was more the product of a long evolution rather than a sudden outburst. Still, the term "renaissance" has some validity, since its conscious focus was classical culture.  The art and architecture drew heavily upon Greek and Roman forms. Historical and political writers used Greek and Roman examples to make their points. And renaissance science, in particular, relied almost slavishly upon Greek and Roman authorities, which was important, since it set up rival authorities to the Church and allowed Western Civilization to break free from the constraints of medieval thought and give birth to the Scientific Revolution during the Enlightenment. Image: "Greek and Roman Sculptures." Greek and Roman Sculptures. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
2 Florence, Italy

Annotations:

  • Florence is often named as the birthplace of the Renaissance. The early writers and artists of the period sprung from this city in the northern hills of Italy. As a center for the European wool trade, the political power of the city rested primarily in the hands of the wealthy merchants who dominated the industry. These merchants built enormous gilded mansions in the city, villas in the country, and contributed to the construction of grand cathedrals, spawning the physical rebirth of the city. A spirit of competition developed between the rich merchants, who often competed with each other to see who could commission the grandest buildings and the finest works of art. Competition augmented the fervor with which the city entered into the Renaissance. Florentines believed themselves to be living in a new age, “reborn” into an era of brilliance not seen since antiquity. The city was enriched by trade and banking and had a reputation for production of high-quality goods. For much of the Renaissance, Florence was ruled by the Medici family, although nominally the city remained a republic and fiercely independent in spirit. It styled itself a “new Athens,” and its citizens adopted a humanistic outlook. Works by classical authors, lost to the West for centuries, were rediscovered, and with them a new, humanistic outlook that placed man and human achievement at the center of all things. Image: "Quiz: Politics and the State in the Renaissance, 1450-1521 - Medievalists.net." Medievalistsnet. N.p., 30 May 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
2.1 Medici Family

Annotations:

  • The Medici family, which ruled Florence throughout much of the Renaissance, played a large part in the patronage of the arts and the political development of the city. The Medici are most famous for their patronage of the arts. Patronage is where a wealthy person or family sponsors artists. They would pay artists commissions for major works of art. The Medici patronage had a huge impact on the Renaissance, allowing artists to focus on their work without having to worry about money. A significant amount of the art and architecture that was produced in Florence at the beginning of the Renaissance was due to the Medici. Early on they supported the painter Masaccio and helped pay the architect Brunelleschi to rebuild the Basilica of San Lorenzo. Other famous artists that the Medici supported include Michelangelo, Raphael, Donatello, and Leonardo da Vinci. The Medici didn't just support the arts and architecture. They also supported science. They supported the famous scientist Galileo Galilei in his scientific efforts. Galileo also worked as a tutor for the Medici children. The Medici family seems to have been the harbinger of the capitalist system. To the extent that it promoted the Renaissance, it represents both the desirable and the objectionable elements of the Renaissance and of the capitalist system in general. Image: "House of Medici." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3 Change

Annotations:

  • The Renaissance was a time of great intellectual growth and rebirth, and this new era of enlightenment for Europeans began in Florence towards the end of the 14th century, following the Middle Ages, and after the Black Death wiped out nearly half of Europe's population. During the Renaissance, a revolution in philosophy, science and mathematics dramatically changed the arts and culture of the world, and represents perhaps the most profoundly important period in human development since the fall of Ancient Rome. The seeds of the modern world were sown and grown in the Renaissance. From circumnavigating the world to the discovery of the solar system, from the beauty of Michelangelo’s David to the perfection of Leonardo’s Mona Lisa, from the genius of Shakespeare to the daring of Luther and Erasmus, and via breathtaking advances in science and mathematics, man achieved new heights in this tumultuous period. The Renaissance changed the world. People might even say it created all of what we now know as modern life.
3.1 Arts

Annotations:

  • Many of the new ideas and attitudes that marked the Renaissance times were portrayed in art. A new idea called humanism put a focus on human interests, needs, and abilities. This new idea changed how artists painted their subjects as well as the choice of subjects they painted. In the Middle Ages the subject of almost all European art was religion, specifically Christianity and the Catholic Church. Although Renaissance artists continued to paint religious paintings, they also branched out to other subjects including Greek and Roman mythology, historical subjects, and portraits of individuals. They also focused on the details of everyday life. One of the big changes in art was to paint and sculpt subjects realistically. This is called realism and involves a number of techniques that make the subjects and background look like they would in real life. This also meant giving the subjects more emotional qualities. Humanistic education, based on rhetoric, ethics and the liberal arts, was pushed as a way to create well-rounded citizens who could actively participate in the political process. Humanists celebrated the mind, beauty, power, and enormous potential of human beings. They believed that people were able to experience God directly and should have a personal, emotional relationship to their faith. God had made the world but humans were able to share in his glory by becoming creators themselves. These new cultural movements gave inspiration to artists, while Italy’s trade with Europe and Asia produced wealth that created a large market for art. Prior to the Renaissance Period, art was largely commissioned by the Catholic Church, which gave artists strict guidelines about what the finished product was to look like. Medieval art was decorative, stylized,  flat, and two-dimensional and did not depict the world or human beings very realistically. But a thriving commercial economy distributed wealth not just to the nobility but to merchants and bankers who were eager to show their status by purchasing works of art, while the Church remained a large patron of the arts as well. Artists were allowed greater flexibility in what they were to produce, and they took advantage of it by exploring new themes and techniques. Image: "Renaissance Art." - History for Kids. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.1.1 Leonardo da Vinci

Annotations:

  • Leonardo da Vinci was a leading artist and intellectual of the Italian Renaissance who's known for his enduring works "The Last Supper" and "Mona Lisa." He was also an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. His natural genius crossed so many disciplines that he epitomized the term “Renaissance man.” In the early 1490s, da Vinci began chronicling his thoughts about painting, architecture, mechanics and human anatomy. Unfortunately, these notebooks were not published and his ideas did not advance scientific understanding in the Renaissance period. Leonardo da Vinci made contributions to the study of science, medicine and art.  In his relentless pursuit to understand how our world works, he was one of the world's greatest inventors, thinkers, scientists, artists and writers. Leonardo da Vinci was a leading voice for reason, logic and science in a world dominated by superstition. Image: "Leonardo Da Vinci, His Paintings and Life." Leonardo Da Vinci Paintings,Drawings,Quotes,Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.1.2 Michelangelo

Annotations:

  • Michelangelo is widely regarded as the most famous artist of the Italian Renaissance, but he was also a sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer. Among his most famous works are the "David" and "Pieta" statues and the Sistine Chapel frescoes. Michelangelo exerted a huge amount of influence upon artists of his time and well into modern times, as well as supporting the humanist movement of the renaissance through his sculpture and art. The renaissance period would have failed to be as revolutionary as it was in Italy and the rest of Europe if he was not apart of the movement. His impact on the renaissance influenced art and society for centuries afterwards, well into modern western society today. Michelangelo had made great influences on the art world. Prior to him, artists did not receive individual attention or notoriety for their work. They were seen as nothing more than journeymen. Michelangelo changed the world's opinion of artists through his extraordinary works of art. With groundbreaking art, he created some of the most revered pieces known to man, and his attention to detail made these works remarkable. His paintings are considered some of the world's greatest showpieces. His work is considered the beginning of the High Renaissance, a period of time where the world came to recognize and appreciate the value of visual arts. Image: "Michelangelo." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.1.3 Patrons

Annotations:

  • The 15th century was the perfect time for the rise of powerful patrons. Italy was not a unified nation, but a series of city-states, independent governments around an urban center. As various cities developed more and more power, the leaders of these cities became very powerful themselves. These leaders established their own courts and hired painters or sculptors to be the official court artists. Besides these leaders, Italy was also filling up with wealthy merchants and bankers that developed personal fortunes from a lucrative market of international trade. During the Renaissance, being a patron signified a way of life, a ranking, a prestige that members of the upper classes strived for and the lower class aspired to. According to humanist philosophies, art was morally uplifting for all of society. So when patrons commissioned a major work of public art, it was seen as a gift to the people. This added a final motivation for patrons to commission art, as a way to increase their fame and immortalize their legacies. The more that patrons are willing to pay, the more art a society will produce. Power of the state was not the only thing patrons worked towards. The church also used patronage as a way to promote their religion and spread beliefs though a society. Churches commissioned artists to decorate their churches, cathedrals, chapels, and temples with sculptures of holy figures, and paintings of religious scenes. Therefore, patrons had played a significant role throughout the Renaissance at producing some of the finest masterpieces. Image: "Venice: Renaissance to Ruskin." : Week 7: Painters and Patrons in 18th Century Venice. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.1.4 Non Religious Themes

Annotations:

  • During the Middle Ages, a period of European history from the third through 13th centuries, art and learning were centered on the church and religion. But at the start of the 14th century, people became less interested in thinking about God, heaven and the saints, and more interested in thinking about themselves, their surroundings and their everyday lives. Part of this change was influenced by the study of ancient Greek and Roman writings on scientific matters, government, philosophy, and art. When scholars during the Renaissance began to study these writings, their interests turned away from traditional areas of study such as religion, medicine and the law. The people of the Renaissance became interested in other areas of science, the natural world, biology and astronomy. People now studied mathematics, engineering, and architecture. Artists, writers, musicians and composers began creating work outside of the church. Artists signed their work and authors wrote autobiographies and memoirs, stories about themselves. The values and ideals popular during the European Renaissance can be described by the term secular humanism: secular, meaning not religious and humanism, meaning placing the study and progress of human nature at the center of interests. The rise of Humanism can be seen in paintings created by Renaissance artists. During the Middle Ages, saints or members of the family of God larger in scale than ordinary or less important figures. As Humanism became more popular during the Renaissance, ordinary people grew to be the same size as saints in paintings and saints began to look more like ordinary people. Saints also occupied the same landscape as ordinary people in Renaissance paintings and the landscape was earth instead of heaven. In the Middle Ages it was common for artists to represent figures of heaven against a gold background, a symbol for the beauty and value of the atmosphere of heaven. As Renaissance artists experimented with new Humanist ideas, the natural landscape began to appear as a background in paintings. Saints left their golden atmosphere to occupy the same gardens, forests and buildings that everyday people lived in.
3.1.5 Raphael

Annotations:

  • A leading figure of Italian High Renaissance classicism, Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, also referred to as Raphael, is best known for his "Madonnas," including the Sistine Madonna, and for his large figure compositions in the Palace of the Vatican in Rome. Raphael was celebrated for the perfection and grace of his paintings and drawings. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael influenced painters up to the 1900's. He made people think of personality when they looked at his paintings. Raphael put realistic emotions into paintings. He changed the way people look at art by painting emotional themes and life. He was thought to be one of the most detailed painters of all portraitists. He also changed the way people thought of the Holy Madonna. Raphael changed the art world, he changed the way people look at art. “The School of Athens”, or “Scuola di Atene” in Italian, is one of the most famous paintings by Raphael. Image: "Raphael." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.1.6 Perspective

Annotations:

  • Perspective is a way of portraying three dimensions on a flat, two-dimensional surface by suggesting depth or distance in a painting or drawing. In the Middle Ages, the period before the Renaissance, most art in Europe featured heavenly figures devoted to the worship of Christ. Because the people in Medieval paintings were citizens of heaven and the artists painting these pictures had never actually seen heaven, the background was left to the imagination and the teachings of the church. Gold backgrounds were very common, as the air in heaven surely must be precious. When people became more interested in the world around them and the ideas of other people rather than heaven and the teachings of Christ and the saints, landscapes and buildings began to show up in paintings. Everyone could see landscapes and buildings everyday so one of the essential artistic problems of the Renaissance became how to paint landscapes and buildings in pictures so that they looked the same as in real life. In the Renaissance, painters needed to be able to translate the three-dimensional world around them onto the two-dimensional surface of a painting, called the "picture plane." The solution was "linear perspective"; the idea that converging lines meet at a single vanishing point and all shapes get smaller in all directions with increasing distance from the eye. The discovery of perspective is attributed to the architect Filippo Brunelleschi, who suggested a system that explained how objects shrink in size according to their position and distance from the eye. Therefore, almost all Renaissance artists turned to the use of perspective to enhance their compositions throughout the rest of the century. Image: "Perspective: The Role of Perspective: Page 3." Perspective: The Role of Perspective: Page 3. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.1.7 Donatello

Annotations:

  • Italian sculptor Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi, better known as Donatello, was the greatest Florentine sculptor before Michelangelo (1475–1564) and was the most influential individual artist of the 15th century in Italy. The powerful expressivity of his art made him a successful and well-known sculptor. Perhaps even more than a sculptor, Donatello was an innovator. His artistic techniques were copied repeatedly by his contemporaries and successors and still inspire artists today. He focused throughout his career on producing in his sculptures a strong cognitive appeal that has drawn attention and praise for centuries. Donatello was fiercely individual when it came to his own technique. It cannot be said that he was led or influenced significantly by any one artist. Instead, he drew inspiration from classical figures and nudes. Donatello's figures were starkly real and vividly emotional. Donatello revolutionized religious art with his emphasis on accurately reproducing life as it truly was, including everything from landscape to facial expressions, and he produced multiple works that were and remain famous for their strikingly realistic humanity and strong psychological element. Second only to Michelangelo in terms of skill and sheer greatness, Donatello left an indelible mark on the Renaissance and the future of art itself. Donatello shot to fame early on as an apprentice to Lorenzo Ghiberti and eventually became one of the most sought-after artists in Italy for his life-like, highly emotional sculptures. Image: "Donatello Biography." Donatello Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.2 Humanism

Annotations:

  • Humanism was an intellectual movement which originated in the thirteenth century, and came to dominate European thought during the Renaissance, in which it played a considerable role in creating. At the core of Renaissance Humanism was using the study of classical texts to alter contemporary thinking, breaking with the medieval mindsets and creating something new. The dignity and worth of the individual was emphasized. This movement originated with the study of classical culture and a group of subjects known collectively as the “studia humanitatis”, or the humanities. Humanism and the humanities disciplines included studies in speaking, grammar, poetry, ethics and history. The humanist preference was to study them as much as possible in their original classical texts. The more traditional educational approach was that of scholasticism, which concentrates on logic, natural science and metaphysics. Humanism obviously played a huge part in the Renaissance period and the development of our civilization. Had Humanism not occurred, the lives of myself and many others may be completely different.
3.2.1 Independent Thinking

Annotations:

  • Humanism is a philosophy of life that considers the welfare of humankind - rather than the welfare of a supposed God or gods - to be of paramount importance. Humanism maintains there is no evidence a supernatural power ever needed or wanted anything from people, ever communicated to them, or ever interfered with the laws of nature to assist or harm anyone. Humanism's focus, then, is on using human efforts to meet human needs and wants in this world. Humanism had affirmed that humans have the freedom to give meaning, value, and purpose to their lives by their own independent thought, free inquiry, and responsible, creative activity. Therefore, people that lived during the Renaissance period were encouraged to have their own thoughts and expressed their own ideas and opinions, and started questioning what they were told by their rulers. Image: "The Dignity of Renaissance Humanism." By B. R. Mullikin. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.2.1.1 Power of the Church and Kings Challenged

Annotations:

  • The Renaissance was a period of questioning and discovery. People started to think independently and experiment with new ideas and concepts. As more and more advancements were made in the arts and sciences, the Catholic Church began to lose the power and influence it had once held over people's beliefs about the world.The spread a philosophy known as humanism during the Renaissance was one factor which lead to a rise in secularism in Europe during the late Middle Ages. Humanism taught people to think as individuals and promoted the idea that humans, not supernatural forces, controlled history. As a result, many people started questioning the teachings of the Church. As well as that, with the Renaissance came the rise of new monarchs. These new monarchs were kings who took responsibility for the welfare of all of society. They centralized power and consolidated authority - the kings now controlled tariffs, taxes, the army, many aspects of religion, and the laws and judiciary. In the way of the rise of new monarchs stood the church and nobles, who feared losing their power to the king. In addition, these new monarchs needed money, and they needed to establish a competent military rather than mercenaries. Therefore, the rise of humanism and the spread of new ideas caused the power of the Church to decline dramatically. Image: "Viva La Italy!" Viva La Italy! N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.3 Literature

Annotations:

  • Renaissance literature is the European literature which was influenced by the intellectual and cultural tendencies associated with the Renaissance. The literature of the Renaissance was written within the general movement of the Renaissance which arose in 14th century to the late 17th century Italy and continued until the 16th century while being diffused into the western world. It is characterized by the adoption of a humanist philosophy, the recovery of the classical literature of Antiquity and benefited from the spread of printing in the latter part of the 15th century. The world was considered from an anthropocentric perspective. Platonic ideas were revived and put to the service of Christianity. The search for pleasures of the senses and a critical and rational spirit completed the ideological panorama of the period. New literary genres such as the essay and new metrical forms such as the sonnet and Spenserian stanza made their appearance. The Renaissance had impacted literature and changed it. Previously, literary works were written in Latin. This meant only those who could understand and read Latin could read,or even listen to, literary works. During the renaissance, writers began to work in the languages of their own people. Chaucer wrote in English, Dante in Italian. This meant not only could more people now read literary works, but their content became available to the ordinary person. The Renaissance promoted literary works in vernacular languages rather than Classical ones. The printing press further encouraged this trend by making literature easier and cheaper to produce, so there were translations into the vernacular as well as new works available on a much wider scale. Image: "The Dignity of Renaissance Humanism." By B. R. Mullikin. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.3.1 Shakespeare

Annotations:

  • William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet, and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. William Shakespeare's influence extends from theatre and literature to present-day movies, Western philosophy, and the English language itself. Shakespeare transformed European theatre by expanding expectations about what could be accomplished through innovation in characterization, plot, language and genre. Shakespeare's writings have also impacted a large number of notable novelists and poets over the years, including Herman Melville and Charles Dickens, and continue to influence new authors even today. Shakespeare is the most quoted writer in the history of the English-speaking world after the various writers of the Bible, many of his quotations and neologisms have passed into everyday usage in English and other languages. He changed the world by providing of means of celebrating life through his words and insights into the human condition. Shakespeare is celebrated for his brilliance. The Renaissance is defined as a period of time when human expression reached its full potential, and Shakespeare’s body of work was and remains one of the most important expressions of the freedom of thought that came out of that seminal period in human history. He influenced the age in which he lived at least as much as it influenced him. Image: "William Shakespeare." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.3.2 Petrarch

Annotations:

  • Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists. His humanist philosophy set the stage for the Renaissance, and he is also considered one of the fathers of the modern Italian language. Petrarch had influenced the Renaissance period quite significantly. His ideals of focusing on man and his own actions rather than on God and His divine affairs did more to foster the development of humanism than anyone else. He was the first person to characterize the Middle Ages as the "Dark Ages" because of how scholars and leaders eschewed science and favored divinity. Petrarch had set the stage for the Renaissance, that rebirth of ideas that began in Italy during the 14th century and subsequently spread throughout Europe over the course several hundred years. In fact, many have called him the father of the Renaissance. Medieval philosophy changed greatly during the Renaissance. Early on, Humanism challenged the medieval interpreters of Aristotle. Later, the rise of science bolstered a new, mechanistic view of philosophy. Image: "Petrarch | Italian Poet." Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.4 Printing

Annotations:

  • The printing press was one of the most significant inventions of the Renaissance period. As it enabled the fast flow of information and encouraged the spread of new ideas, it was also a huge driving force behind the spread of humanism across Europe. The invention of the printing press definitely changed the world in many different ways. During ancient times, and for most of the Middle Ages, books were hand-written by scribes or monks and many people did not learn how to read. Most books were written in Latin, a language which only the most educated people could understand. This was before the printing press revolutionised the world of literature. Once it became possible to reproduce text very quickly, books could be read by many more people. This meant that people who were previously illiterate now had motivation to learn how to read, which lead to a more educated and inquisitive population. The invention of the printing press also made a huge impact on the Catholic Church. Since books were being translated from Latin into different languages, people began to question why Mass was still being delivered in Latin. People started asking why Church services were not conducted in a language that all members of society, regardless of their level of wealth and education, could actually understand. Image: "Music Of The Early Printers." Music Of The Early Printers. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.4.1 Gutenberg

Annotations:

  • Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe. When Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1445, he forever changed the lives of people in Europe and, eventually, all over the world. Previously, bookmaking entailed copying all the words and illustrations by hand. Often the copying had been done onto parchment, animal skin that had been scraped until it was clean, smooth, and thin. The labor that went into creating them made each book very expensive. Because Gutenberg's press could produce books quickly and with relatively little effort, bookmaking became much less expensive, allowing more people to buy reading material. Books also helped to spread awareness of a new philosophy that emerged when Renaissance scholars known as humanists returned to the works of ancient writers. Previously, during the Middle Ages, scholars had been guided by the teachings of the church, and people had concerned themselves with actions leading to heavenly rewards. The writings of ancient, pagan Greece and Rome, called the "classics," had been greatly ignored. To study the classics, humanists learned to read Greek and ancient Latin, and they sought out manuscripts that had lain undisturbed for nearly 2,000 years. The humanists rediscovered writings on scientific matters, government, rhetoric, philosophy, and art. They were influenced by the knowledge of these ancient civilizations and by the emphasis placed on man, his intellect, and his life on Earth. Image: "Johannes Gutenberg." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.4.1.1 Famous Printed Bible

Annotations:

  • Johann Gutenberg holds the distinction of being the inventor of the printing press. In 1455, Gutenberg produced what is considered to be the first book ever printed: a Latin language Bible, printed in Mainz, Germany.  This elegant, two-volume Latin Bible was one of the earliest works made using movable metallic type, a system of individual letters and character pieces that could be rearranged and reused during printing. Its popularity signaled a global revolution for the written word. Books previously had to be laboriously copied by hand, yet only a half-century after the Gutenberg Bible became the world’s first printed bestseller, millions of different volumes were flying off presses across Europe. The invention of the movable-type printing press meant that Bibles and books could finally be produced in large quantities in a short period of time. Gutenberg’s bible helped to lead to the Renaissance and the separation of Church and state as ideas flowed freely and it wasn’t only the monasteries, universities and wealthy who had access to books and knowledge. Gutenberg wasn’t an artist in the traditional sense. Perhaps he may be better considered an entrepreneurial engineer who served as a conductor of ideas. A conductor to whom a great deal is owed. Whatever we may consider him to be, without his creative thought and determination, the world in which we live would be a very different place. Image: "Gutenberg Bible." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.5 Politics

Annotations:

  • There were quite a lot of politics changes throughout the Renaissance period. After the collapse of the Roman Empire around 500 ad the only unifying force remaining was the Roman Catholic Church. Outside invasions declined and the rulers began to consolidate their power and concentrate on self preservation. It was easier to accumulate wealth and industry continued to grow. Cities grew rapidly ad the population shifted from agricultural life to city life, where jobs were more plentiful. This increase the number of people being taxed and meant more wealth to fund expansion abroad. The struggle for power between the popes and the emperors allowed Italian towns to expand their power and independence. These city-states continued increasing their power and influence and by the 14th century, five states controlled all of Italy. These five states had a lot of differences in their political and military powers. The kingdom of Naples and Sicily (in the South) continued to keep their political and military relationships among the nobility. This type of relationship is known as feudalism. The center of Italy was the Papal States and the pope’s interest was in recapturing the power, control and influence they had lost during the papal exile and the Great Schism. The thinking that politics should be free from any relationship to religion grew. People stressed that the government and the process of running the government should be based on science and not religion, or Christendom, principles. The political systems that were developed during the Renaissance are still used in the modern world. Image: "Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Rise of Nations." English. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.5.1 Machiavelli

Annotations:

  • Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. He has often been called the founder of modern political science. Machiavelli’s contribution to the field of politics was so important that thinkers who followed him approached politics much differently than those who had preceded him. His work and renown became an incessant reference for all authors, whether they agreed with his principles or disapproved them. Although he wrote on many topics, Machiavelli is best remembered for the political advice he offered in 1513 in The Prince. Machiavelli counseled the ruler to be kind only of it suited his purposes. Otherwise, he warned, it is better to be feared than loved. He made one saying that has been influential to the present human age. He said that if you want to make an individual obey a particular aspect in life, you will be forced to supply a particular level of power that will make him prefer the aspect other than any other that is in existence. In this case, safety and security will be maintained in any state. Through his works politicians now can better understand how the world of politics functions, and that leaders are often faced with difficult tasks that there is no “good” outcome, but what has to be done to succeed must be done. Image: "Niccolò Machiavelli." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.6 Science

Annotations:

  • During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, manufacturing, anatomy and engineering. The rediscovery of ancient scientific texts was accelerated after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, and the invention of printing which would democratize learning and allow a faster propagation of new ideas. Science and art were very closely related during this time. Great artists, such as Leonardo da Vinci, would study anatomy to better understand the body so they could create better paintings and sculptures. Architects such as Filippo Brunelleschi made advances in math in order to design buildings. The true geniuses of the time were often both artists and scientists. They were both considered talents of the true Renaissance man. Near the end of the Renaissance, the scientific revolution began. This was a time of great strides in science and mathematics. Scientists like Francis Bacon, Galileo, Rene Descartes, and Isaac Newton made discoveries that would change the world. The Scientific Method was further developed during the Renaissance. Galileo used controlled experiments and analyzed data to prove, or disprove, his theories. The process was later refined by scientists such as Francis Bacon and Isaac Newton. Image: "Renaissance and Reformation Science." Billsmuseum -. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.6.1 Vesalius

Annotations:

  • Andreas Vesalius was an anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body). Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. His remarkable 1543 book was a fully illustrated anatomy of the human body. Based on observations he had made during dissections, the book overthrew misconceptions in anatomy that had persisted for over a thousand years. Vesalius was an anatomy professor at the University of Padua and a physician to Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. He was the first to lead the way to independent investigation in the examination of the structure of the human body. After conducting initial research, he became certain that it was absolutely essential to analyze real corpses to study the human body. He resurrected the use of human dissection, regardless of the strict ban by the Catholic Church. Before Vesalius, human anatomy was not learned by studying or dissecting bodies. Much of the knowledge was fictional, chiefly contributed by Galen over a millennium ago. Vesalius was the first to challenge the theories of Galen and carried out dissection to closely observe the inner structure and construction of the human body. Based on his direct observation through dissection, Vesalius discovered, recorded and published the facts of real anatomy. He marked the beginning of scientific research and observation with his courageous efforts and profound skills. Modern medicine is forever in debt to the efforts put forth by Vesalius and his ethic to provide the most accurate form of the human body. The manner in which Vesalius tended to his work could arguably be thought of as more significant than the work itself. By overthrowing the Galenic tradition and relying on his own observations, Vesalius created a new scientific method. His desire to strive for the truth is most evident through his ability to correct his own claims and to continually reshape his thoughts on the human body. Through his attention to detail, he was able to provide clear descriptions and unprecedented anatomical drawings that set a new standard for future medical books. Image: "Andreas Vesalius." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.6.2 Galileo

Annotations:

  • Galileo Galilei, was an Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance. Galileo made pioneering observations that laid the foundation for modern physics and astronomy. His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments. Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer who challenged many of the commonly held ideas of his time. His discoveries of the laws of motion and telescope improvements are still considered the foundations of many scientific beliefs today. Galileo worked extensively with weights to counter and disprove Aristotle's theory about weight. He found that all weights fell at the same speed regardless of their mass. It is sometimes thought that Galileo actually invented the telescope, but the truth is that he took an invention already in place and improved it. Further, he began using it in the study of astronomy, which was new at the time. His improvements enabled him to magnify things eight to nine times versus three. This is how he confirmed the theory of Copernicus that stated that Earth revolved around the sun. Galileo contributed to the Renaissance by helping to create a new way of thinking. In this new way of thinking, people did not simply trust in what they had been told by religious authorities or by ancient thinkers like Aristotle. Instead, they required scientific proof of things if they were to believe them. Image: "Galileo Galilei." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.6.3 Copernicus

Annotations:

  • Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe. Copernicus was the first person in history to create a complete and general system, combining mathematics, physics, and cosmology. Yet, by themselves Copernicus's achievements do not constitute a revolution. Copernicus had been motivated to this theory by Neoplatonic and Pythagorean considerations. His reasoning seems to have been predominantly motivated by aesthetics. In his view, equally spaced planets in circular orbits would represent harmony in the universe. But Copernicus had made no observations and stated no general laws. His mathematics could describe the motion of the planets, Eric Weisstein's World of Astronomy but his theory was of a very ad hoc nature. Nicolaus Copernicus fulfilled the Renaissance ideal. He became a mathematician, an astronomer, a church jurist with a doctorate in law, a physician, a translator, an artist, a Catholic cleric, a governor, a diplomat, and an economist. He spoke German, Polish, and Latin, and understood Greek and Italian. Nicolaus Copernicus’ contribution to the astronomical history was large and it was a huge impact as well. He changed the way of thinking, not only astronomically but also religiously. This was because the Catholic teachings were based on the theory Image: "Nicolaus Copernicus." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.7 Architecture

Annotations:

  • Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the Renaissance style quickly spread to other Italian cities. The style was carried to France, Germany, England, Russia and other parts of Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact. Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings. The style of architecture, reflecting the rebirth of Classical culture, that originated in Florence in the early 15th century and spread throughout Europe, replacing the medieval Gothic style. There was a revival of ancient Roman forms, including the column and round arch, the tunnel vault, and the dome. The basic design element was the order. Knowledge of Classical architecture came from the ruins of ancient buildings and the writings of Vitruvius. Image: "Italian Renaissance Architecture by Matteo Simeoni." Italian Renaissance Architecture. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
3.7.1 Brunelleschi

Annotations:

  • Filippo Brunelleschi was an Italian designer and a key figure in architecture, recognised to be the first modern engineer, planner and sole construction supervisor. He was the oldest amongst the founding fathers of the Renaissance. He best known for his work on the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, the Duomo, in Florence. In 1419 Filippo was given the task of completing the dome for the Cathedral of Florence. This work occupied a great deal of Brunelleschi's life and the challenge was enormous, no dome of that size had been built since antiquity. The dome became not only an architectural problem, but also demanded great engineering skill and Filippo invented, and patented, a new hoisting machine for raising the masonry required for the dome. When Brunelleschi completed his structure, the cathedral dome dominated the skyline of Florence even today, and it remains as a lasting testament to a great architect. Brunelleschi made a huge impact on architecture throughout the Renaissance period, his work was a model for much that followed. This outstanding Renaissance character developed the concept of linear perspective, showing depth on a flat surface. He also influenced some of the great minds, such as Michelangelo and Donato Bramante. Filippo Brunelleschi created the Foundling Hospital, which still stands today. Filippo wrote a book called, Rules of Perspective, which was used as a text for many architects in the future. Filippo Brunelleschi also has had a strong influence on the architectural world. The Renaissance Era was a time for new things or "rebirth" so architects were trying new ideas and methods of construction. It worked and this gave architects of the future to try new ideas and improve on the old work.  The Renaissance was all about fitting human needs instead of divine needs. Therefore, Brunelleschi focused on pleasing the humans instead of himself or his divine needs.  Brunelleschi influenced the modern world and taught people that art isn't about satisfying anybody, just making a work of architecture that will be remembered.   Image: "Filippo Brunelleschi." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
4 Medicine

Annotations:

  • Before the Renaissance, medicine in Europe was largely built upon theories, with little research into what actually worked. Knowledge filtering from the Islamic world improved the situation somewhat, but even their contribution hailed back to the incorrect assumptions made by Aristotle and Pliny the Elder. Largely due to a shift towards a more scientific approach, the Renaissance helped to change and evolutionize the field of medicine. Physicians developed better cures, built upon observation rather than archaic theory. Adding to the herbs and cures often used by the Islamic physicians, explores to the New World and Asia brought back other cures, such as Quinine, from the bark of the Quina tree, a preparation still used in the treatment of malaria and its symptoms. Laudanum, based on opium, started to flood into Europe, as a painkiller. Many medicines still had no effect, or were largely based in superstition, but physicians showed a willingness to think laterally and try new things rather than remain stuck in mediaeval thought. Image: "Renaissance Medicine." Anne Edwards. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.

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