Immunology part 2

shalihin
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shalihin
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Immunology by shalihin

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Immunology part 2
1 Third line defence
1.1 Adaptive immune response
1.1.1 characteristics
1.1.1.1 response higher in the second infection
1.1.1.2 specific
1.1.1.3 immune activated after infection starts
1.1.1.4 memory stored
2 organs of lymphatic system
2.1 primary
2.1.1 Absence of antigen
2.2 secondary
2.2.1 Antigen-driven immune cell
3 development of T and B cells
3.1 lymphocyte
3.1.1 B cells
3.1.1.1 bone marrow
3.1.2 T cells
3.1.2.1 thymus
3.1.3 Have markers
3.1.3.1 bind to receptors on other cells
3.1.3.2 transmit and receive message
3.1.3.3 bind to antigens
3.1.4 receptors
3.1.4.1 Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
3.1.4.1.1 class 1
3.1.4.1.1.1 all nucleated cell
3.1.4.1.2 class 2
3.1.4.1.2.1 antigen-presenting cell
3.1.4.1.2.1.1 macrophages
3.1.4.1.2.1.2 dendritic cells
3.1.4.1.2.1.3 B cells
3.1.4.1.3 class 3
3.1.4.1.3.1 protein associated with the complement system
3.1.4.2 Cluster of differentiation (CD)
3.1.4.2.1 CD4
3.1.4.2.1.1 MHC class 2
3.1.4.2.2 CD8
3.1.4.2.2.1 MHC class 1
3.1.4.3 Antigen-specific
3.1.4.3.1 recognise one type of unique antigen
3.1.4.3.2 diverse key and lock shapes
3.1.4.3.3 T and B cell carrying receptors
3.1.4.3.3.1 clones receptors
3.1.4.3.3.1.1 clonal deletion
3.1.4.3.3.1.1.1 eliminate lymphocytes that recognise self-antigens
4 Presentation antigen
4.1 Antigen
4.1.1 provoke immune response
4.1.2 antigenicity depends on
4.1.2.1 complexity
4.1.2.2 size
4.1.2.3 foreignness
4.1.3 presented by APCs
4.1.3.1 B cells
4.1.3.1.1 immunoglobulins
4.1.3.1.1.1 IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD
4.1.3.2 dendritic cells
4.1.3.3 macrophages
4.1.3.4 T-cell receptors (TCR)
4.1.3.4.1 co-receptors
4.1.3.4.1.1 CD4 and CD*
5 T-cell response
5.1 APCs activate T cells
5.1.1 stimulate into
5.1.1.1 T helper cells (Th)
5.1.1.1.1 activate other cells
5.1.1.1.1.1 macrophages
5.1.1.1.1.2 B cells
5.1.1.1.1.3 Tc cells
5.1.1.2 Memory T cells
5.1.1.2.1 store immunological memory
5.1.1.3 Regulatory T cells (Treg)
5.1.1.3.1 prevent excessive inflammation and autoimmunity
5.1.1.4 Cytotoxic T cells (Tc)
5.1.1.4.1 attact
5.1.1.4.1.1 infected host cells
5.1.1.4.1.2 cancerous host cell
5.1.1.4.1.3 foreign cells
5.1.1.4.2 secrete granzymes and perforins
5.1.1.4.2.1 leads to perforations and apoptosis
6 B-cell response
6.1 T-independent
6.2 T-dependent
6.2.1 T-helper cell
6.3 Differentiate
6.3.1 memory B cells
6.3.2 Regulatory B cells
6.3.3 Plasma cells
6.3.3.1 antibodies
6.3.3.1.1 Neutralisation
6.3.3.1.2 Oponisation
6.3.3.1.3 Agglutination
6.3.3.1.4 Antitoxin action
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