4.1 Prenatal Development

Cy290994
Mind Map by Cy290994, updated more than 1 year ago
Cy290994
Created by Cy290994 over 6 years ago
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Description

Developmental Psychology (The Prenatal Period and Birth) Mind Map on 4.1 Prenatal Development, created by Cy290994 on 02/12/2014.

Resource summary

4.1 Prenatal Development
1 Conception
1.1 Occurs with intercourse around ovulation
1.1.1 After one has fertilized the egg, reactions occurs that repels other sperm
1.2 Infertility

Annotations:

  • inability to get pregnant after trying for a year
1.2.1 Solutions
1.2.1.1 Simple
1.2.1.1.1 Men: looser pants
1.2.1.1.2 Women: take temp. to see when ovulating
1.2.1.2 More elaborate
1.2.1.2.1 ART

Annotations:

  • Assisted Reproductive Techniques
1.2.1.2.1.1 Prescription drugs for women to ripen ovaries and release several eggs
1.2.1.2.1.2 Artificial Insemination

Annotations:

  • injecting sperm (woman's partner/donor) into uterus
1.2.1.2.1.3 IVF

Annotations:

  • several eggs are removed from the ovary and manually combined with sperm in a lab dish before implanting into the uterus
1.2.2 Costly
1.2.3 Success rate for women to use their own eggs decreases with age
2 Prenatal Stages
2.1 Germinal

Annotations:

  • Lasts ~ 2 weeks 
2.1.1 Formation of the blastocyte

Annotations:

  • hollow ball of cells
2.1.1.1 Around day 6 implants itself in the uterine wall
2.1.1.1.1 Not all survive, some miscarried
2.2 Embryonic

Annotations:

  • 3rd-8th week of conception
2.2.1 Organogenesis

Annotations:

  • layers of blastocyte differentiate forming structures
2.2.1.1 Outerlayer- Amnion

Annotations:

  • watertight membrane that fills with fluid that cushions and protects the fetus 
2.2.1.2 Chorion

Annotations:

  • surrounds amnion and attaches villi to the uterine lining for nourishment for the embryo
2.2.1.2.1 Eventually becomes the placenta

Annotations:

  • Tissue fed by blood vessels from the mother connected to the embryo by the umbilical chord 
2.2.1.2.1.1 Exchanges materials btwn mother and fetus through the placental barrier
2.2.1.2.1.1.1 Small substances but not large molecules can pass through
2.2.1.3 Inner-layer
2.2.1.3.1 Ectoderm
2.2.1.3.2 Mesoderm
2.2.1.3.3 Endoderm
2.2.1.4 Brain Development

Annotations:

  • 3-4 weeks 
2.2.1.4.1 neural plate folds to become neural tube
2.2.1.4.1.1 Bottom becomes spinal chord
2.2.1.4.2 Lower portions of the brain develop the first
2.2.1.4.2.1 These parts make life possible
2.2.1.4.3 Problems

Annotations:

  • 25-29 days after conception; occurs with deficiency in folic acid 
2.2.1.4.3.1 Spina Bifida

Annotations:

  • part of the spinal chord is not fully encased in spinal column
2.2.1.4.3.2 Anencaphaly

Annotations:

  • main portion of the brain above the brain stem fails to develop; lethal
2.2.1.5 Sexual Differentiation

Annotations:

  • 7th/8th weeks 
2.2.1.5.1 testes of male embryo secrete testosterone
2.2.1.5.1.1 Stimulates male development
2.2.1.5.2 Lack of testosterone allows female reproductive development
2.3 Fetal Period

Annotations:

  • 9th week of pregnancy until birth 
2.3.1 Proliferation of neurons
2.3.1.1 After birth, proliferation of glial cells

Annotations:

  • Support cells for neurons 
2.3.1.1.1 Neurons use glial cells to migrate from their origin to particular locations in the brain
2.3.1.1.1.1 "In to out" growth
2.3.2 Differentiation occurs
2.3.2.1 Major malformations will not occur; organs have already formed
2.3.2.1.1 But can stunt growth and interfere with the wiring of the nervous system
2.3.3 About 23 weeks, fetus reaches age of viability

Annotations:

  • survival out of uterus possible if the brain and respiratory system is formed well 
2.3.3.1 Not a guarantee of life or health
2.3.4 Neurons develop a myelin sheath and connect to each other
2.3.5 Infant undergoes "infant states"

Annotations:

  • State of sleeping and waking
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