Detente 1969-81

Tom Lea
Mind Map by Tom Lea, updated more than 1 year ago
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A-Levels Cold War Mind Map on Detente 1969-81, created by Tom Lea on 05/22/2016.
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Detente 1969-81
1 Key events
1.1 Moscow Summit 1972
1.1.1 SALT I Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
1.1.1.1 ABM Treaty - Each side limited to 2 missile shields.
1.1.1.1.1 Particularly benefited USSR - behind in ABM tech & coulldn't afford 2nd arms race
1.1.1.2 Basic Principles Agreement
1.1.1.2.1 12 fundamental principles
1.1.1.2.1.1 improved stability of relationship
1.1.1.2.2 Each saw other as equal.
1.1.1.2.3 Coexistence not confrontation
1.1.1.3 Interim Agreement on Offensive Missiles
1.1.1.3.1 Missile launchers: 1618 (USSR) 1054 (USA) Sub based launchers: 740 (USSR), 656 (USA)
1.1.1.3.2 Only temp - full agreement to be formed in 1977
1.1.1.4 Followed by SALT II - agreement: ceiling of 2400 missiles & bombers
1.1.1.4.1 Disagreements over cruise missiles and Russian 'Backfire' bombers - US believe they could reach US so should be included
1.1.1.4.2 Carter announced new nuclear project
1.1.1.4.2.1 Biggest US construction project of all time - 200 new missiles, 23 silos, underground railways
1.1.1.4.3 Not ratified by Congress following Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
1.2 Helsinki Accords 1975 - Governed relations between East and West Europe
1.2.1 Basket 1: Security issues
1.2.1.1 Respect spheres of influence and each others' borders. POssible future border change - peacful negotitation
1.2.2 Basket 2: Economic cultural, scientific and Economic
1.2.2.1 Improve trading relations - Western tech to be shared with East.
1.2.2.1.1 Undermined legitimacy of Communism
1.2.2.1.1.1 Increase in access to better western goods made East question communism as ideology
1.2.2.1.1.2 Trade across Iron Curtain increased knowlledge of stystem with freedom of speech, press, religion, politics - East shown preferable system
1.2.3 Basket 3: Human Rights
1.2.3.1 European states - respect rights of citizens. Relax travel restrictions
1.3 Ostpolik
1.3.1 Sometimes refered to as European Detente
1.3.2 Brandt overturned the Hallstein Doctrine
1.3.3 Improved East-West relations
1.3.3.1 Berlin Agreement: guarenteed West Ger's borders - no invasion from East
1.4 Jackson Vanik Ammendment
1.4.1 Part of 1974 Trade Act
1.4.2 Restricted right to US trade to nations which restricted freedom of movement/immigration
1.4.2.1 Clear 'attack' on USSR
1.4.2.1.1 USSR pull out of trade deal - economy suffers - no US tech
1.4.2.2 Waiver used to exclude China from provisions of J-V
1.5 Oil Crisis - 1973
1.5.1 OPEC - complete Oil embargo on Isreali allies
1.5.1.1 4X oil price increase within year
1.5.1.1.1 West still able to respond quickly -
1.5.1.1.1.1 Economic recovery cut need for West to pursue detente
2 success?
2.1 Normalisation
2.1.1 Helsinki Accords only pledges - not legally binding.
2.1.1.1 Human Rights especially ignored by USSR
2.1.1.1.1 KGB suppression of Orlov's monitoring group (had exposed Human rights abuses)
2.1.2 Basic Principles Agreement
2.1.2.1 Established framework for discussions
2.1.2.2 contradicted by J-V
2.2 Economic prosperity
2.2.1 Slowed the Arms race - USSR economy couldn't afford
2.2.1.1 Industrial growth fell in USSR in 1970s - 8.2% in 1964 1% in 1979
2.2.1.1.1 Led to increased imbalance between powers - destabalised
2.2.1.2 Us defence spending down: 1970 - $406 billion, $284 billion 1976 - result of vietnam
2.2.2 Jackson Vanik - raised tensions
2.2.3 1974-5 Western imports to USSR up by 96%
2.3 Avoid Nuclear War
2.3.1 SALT I
2.3.1.1 Useful agreements ABM, Basic Principles
2.3.1.1.1 Stabalised the arms race - closer to parity
2.3.1.2 Created a dialogue
2.3.2 SALT II
2.3.2.1 Not able to continue success of SALT I
2.4 Overall?
2.4.1 Stabalised relations Economic consequences favoured US which lead to imbalance
2.4.2 Significantly criticised by some in US - handing power to USSR - cheap imports, no benefit to US, Human rights not respected
3 End of Detente
3.1 1979 - Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
3.1.1 Carter demanded Soviet withdrawal - looked weak when no response
3.1.2 Percieved by US as first step to expansion
3.1.3 US fund Mujahadeen - Carter's aim to make war costly for USSR
3.1.4 Gave more power to Hawks in US administration - Brzezinski
3.2 Rise of 'Neo Conservatism' in US prior to Afghan invasion
3.2.1 Increased confidence as humiliation of Vietnam fades
3.2.2 Iranian Embassy Crisis - islamic militants occupy US embassy in Tehran - US can do nothing - appear impotent in world affairs
3.3 Soviiet expansion in 3rd World
3.4 Soviet violation of Helsinki Accords (HR)
4 Impact of Reagan and Thatcher
4.1 Evil Empire
5 Causes
5.1 Nixon's policy, but both superpowers want to avoid nuclear war
5.1.1 MAD a certainty by 1969 - USSR closed missile gap
5.2 US Motives
5.2.1 Vietnam
5.2.1.1 Withdrawal of troops Nixon's main objective
5.2.1.2 Cost - $66 million/day at height of war. $30billion in 1969
5.2.2 Economics
5.2.2.1 Post war boom ending
5.2.2.1.1 1970: Inflation 6%
5.2.2.1.2 Unemployment up more than 6% in early 70s
5.2.2.1.3 Change in system of exchange rates - 'Bretton Woods' system collapsed - currencies no longer fixed relative values
5.2.2.1.3.1 International trade less stable
5.2.3 Kissinger
5.2.3.1 Realpolitik: Pursue realistic FP aims (arms reduction) not ideological.
5.2.3.2 Normalisation: negotiation would improve US/USSR relations
5.3 USSR motives
5.3.1 Economics
5.3.1.1 USSR economy 1/6 size of US
5.3.1.2 Increasing demand from public - consumer goods
5.3.1.2.1 Therefore reduce defence spending & get investment from west
5.3.2 Nuclear parity
5.3.2.1 1969: US 28,000 warheads, USSR 11,000
5.3.2.2 Achieve parity without increasing spending
5.3.3 China
5.3.3.1 Sino-Soviet split
5.3.3.2 Sino-US rapproachment
5.3.4 3rd world
5.3.4.1 Brezhnev wanted influnece in 3rd world - didn't want to provoke US whilst doing this
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