220.127.116.11 Large brains for social skills;
living in groups; hunting - time
spent around the fire developed
social bonds, language.
18.104.22.168 Meat to feed large brain
- fire harnessed to make
meat more digestible
22.214.171.124 Body adapted to hunting.
126.96.36.199.1 Turkana Boy (Nariokotome Boy) - Homo ergaster - 1.6mya
188.8.131.52.1.1 Long Waist for Balance - Running
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 Humans caught prey by literally running it
into the ground in the hot savannah
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Hairlessness and Sweating -
efficient cooling system for long
22.214.171.124.1.3 Died at age 8-12 - still
a child - long
childhoods give human
brains time to develop
126.96.36.199.1.4 Large brain - 880cc vs modern 1250cc
188.8.131.52.1.5 Bones in throat suggested less vocal
range than in modern humans but
maybe able to use proto-language
184.108.40.206.1.6 Stone tools - handaxes made and used
- technology. Required skill and
teaching and allowed more efficient
hunting and butchering of animals.
220.127.116.11 Narrow hips for upright
walking led to painful and
18.104.22.168 Nakedness - we are
"hairless" to allow sweat to
evaporate and cool us
down whilst hunting.
22.214.171.124 Back problems - human spines are S shaped
for running, but this means that they are weak
and bear a lot of weight as we are bipeds
on two legs
1.2 The Biological Body: Universalism
1.2.1 Brain=Universal so
language and classification
2.1 Controlling the Body
2.1.1 Body Modification
126.96.36.199 Female Circumcision
188.8.131.52 Lip Plates
184.108.40.206.1 The Suri, Ethiopia (Women)
220.127.116.11.1.1 Cattle Wealth - larger lip
plates mean a woman must
be given more cattle by her
husband when they marry.
18.104.22.168.1.2 Possibly introduced to
deter white slavers from
22.214.171.124.1 Koita women in Papua New Guinea
126.96.36.199.1.1 Coming of age - begin
getting tattoos at 5 years
old. The bands around the
neck are to show that she
is of marriageable age.
188.8.131.52.2 Hand done with sharp tools
such as fish bones and ink
or ash. Quite painful.
184.108.40.206.3.1 Tattooing and scarification are considered
haram (forbidden) in Islam. However, temporary
henna or mehndi tattoos are permitted and
popular. In India, mehndi is often applied to a
bride the night before the wedding.
220.127.116.11.4 Samoa - the Pe'a
18.104.22.168.5 Gang and Prison culture
22.214.171.124 Foot Binding
2.1.2 Caste System
126.96.36.199 Ritual Purity
188.8.131.52 Bordieu: Habitus - Behaviour is
2.2.1 Simon Underdown: Race is not a useful concept in
anthropology as it has little biological relevance and is
therefore conflated with ethnicity, prone to inducing
"otherness", exoticism, ethnocentricism etc; race
accountable for only 6% of genetic variation in a
population - there is only one human race.
2.2.2 American Anthropological Association treatise on race:
Anthropology has tended to be racist and colonialist and
should now focus on dispelling racial stereotypes and
184.108.40.206 Rivers: Even if application of
classification is diverse, there is
still a logic to it that makes sense in
the culture that uses the words.
220.127.116.11.1 "Mate" - dead in Melanesian cultures can apply to people who the west would still
consider alive, but who are no longer useful to society - young children, the ill and
the elderly can all be mate, meaning that it is possible to go from dead to being
alive again. People who are not expected to do so - the elderly or extremely ill are
often killed outright. Although to western cultures this may seem cruel, the cultures
who practice this have extremely limited resources, and allowing someone who
cannot help society to live may condemn healthy people to starvation. Rivers says,
therefore, that considering these people already dead makes doing this, and the
preservation of the society as a whole easier - it is logical.
18.104.22.168 Levi Bruhl, typical white male anthropologist claimed
that the Hopi people were "pre-logical" as their
language lacks tenses. Rivers would argue that
therefore the culture did not need tense to function. It
is ethnocentric to believe that all cultures should have
the same conception of time as in the west.
22.214.171.124.1 A Hopi woman
2.3.2 Linguistic Determinalism
126.96.36.199 Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: As brains think in language,
our experiences and thoughts are defined by
language and not the other way around.
188.8.131.52 Evidence: Russian has more words for blue than English, and so in tests
Russian people are able to distinguish more separate colours of blue than
native English speakers, showing that the language spoken has literally
influenced perception of something our brain processes - colour.