research methods

jadeharmar
Mind Map by jadeharmar, updated more than 1 year ago
jadeharmar
Created by jadeharmar about 6 years ago
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A Levels PSYCHOLOGY (Research methods) Mind Map on research methods, created by jadeharmar on 03/10/2014.
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research methods
1 questionnaires
1.1 quantative data
1.1.1 numerical data e.g a measurement
1.2 qualatitive data
1.2.1 written data or descriptive data can be in pictures
1.3 self report
1.3.1 a ppt. reports on their own experiences
1.4 questions
1.4.1 closed questions
1.4.1.1 questions which you have to choose from a set of answers normally yes/no ect.
1.4.2 open questions
1.4.2.1 questions in which you are free to write what you like
1.5 weaknesses
1.5.1 people may lie or exaggerate to make themselves look better
1.5.2 people may misunderstand or not understand the question
2 ethical issues
2.1 informed consent
2.1.1 ppt. knows they are taking part in a study and they know what will happen to them
2.1.1.1 children under 16 cannot consent
2.2 right to withdraw
2.2.1 ppt. can leave the study at any time even if not is not finished
2.2.1.1 they should never be pressured to continue
2.3 confidentiality
2.3.1 researcher must always keep ppt. personal information and results confidential
2.4 protection of paricipents
2.4.1 protects ppt. from physical and psychological harm
2.4.1.1 ppt. should not be decieved
2.4.1.2 ppt. should not be distressed
2.4.1.3 ppt. should leave in the same state they came
2.4.1.4 ppt. should not be embarrassed or uncomfortable
2.5 deception
2.5.1 do not lie to ppt. you tell them everything that will happen to them
2.5.1.1 tell them everything in the debreif
3 hypothesis
3.1 a prediction of what will happen
3.1.1 Null hypothesis (H0)
3.1.1.1 predicts no difference
3.1.1.1.1 e.g. there will be no difference in the stress levels of people working in noisy conditions compared to those working in quiet conditions
3.1.2 alternate hypothesis (H1)
3.1.2.1 predicts a difference
3.1.2.1.1 e.g. there will be a difference in the stress levels of people who work in noisy conditions to those who work in quiet.
3.1.2.1.1.1 or there will be a higher level of stress in people who work in noisy conditions than those who work in quiet
4 variables
4.1 independant
4.1.1 something that can be changed or manipulated
4.2 dependant
4.2.1 something that can be measured
4.3 extraneous (control)
4.3.1 something which you keep the same
4.3.1.1 can effect results if it is not controlled
4.3.1.1.1 this is then called a extraneous variable
4.3.1.1.1.1 participant variable
4.3.1.1.1.1.1 differences between ppt. in two groups
4.3.1.1.1.2 situational variable
4.3.1.1.1.2.1 parts of the environment that may affect the results
4.4 standardisation
4.4.1 every trial is run in the same way
4.4.1.1 standardised procedure
4.4.1.1.1 each ppt. is treated in the same way
4.4.1.2 standardised procedure
4.4.1.2.1 each ppt. is given the same instructions
5 sampling techniques
5.1 target population
5.1.1 people you are interested in looking at
5.1.2 sample
5.1.2.1 group from the target pop.
5.1.2.2 random sample
5.1.2.2.1 put all posibilities together and pick out a certain number of them
5.1.2.2.1.1 + not as bias +more representative +more generalisable
5.1.2.2.1.2 -pick everything that is similar, not always representative -takes alot of time
5.1.2.3 opportunity sample
5.1.2.3.1 you use what is avalible to you
5.1.2.3.1.1 +quick and easy
5.1.2.3.1.2 -bias, dont get generalisable results
6 experiments
6.1 the way a researcher finds out information
6.1.1 variables must be included
6.2 field experiment
6.2.1 an experiment which is carried out in a controlled setting
6.2.1.1 STRENGTHS: researcher has a higher control of extraneous variables, it is more ethical because the ppt will generally know they are taking part in a experiment so will know all details
6.2.1.2 WEAKNESSES: it is less ecologically valid as it is in a fake environment, ppt may act differently, more chance of demand charecteristics because ppt might find out aim and act differently
6.3 labatory experiment
6.3.1 an experiment which is carried out in a natural environment
6.3.1.1 STRENGTHS: higher ecological validity as it is in a natural setting so ppt will act more naturally
6.3.1.2 WEAKNESSES: less ethical because ppt. do not always know they are taking part so they do not know they can withdraw ect.
7 interviews
7.1 face to face meeting researchers use to get information
7.2 structured interview
7.2.1 pre set questions to ask, interview does not generally move off subject
7.3 unstructured interview
7.3.1 no set questions to follow conversation leads from answers given
7.4 people are less likely to lie
7.5 people may not include everything, may be embaressed
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