Individual Differences -Thigpen and Cleckley (1953)

Robyn Chamberlain
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A-Level Psychology (AS - 15 Core Studies (OCR)) Mind Map on Individual Differences -Thigpen and Cleckley (1953), created by Robyn Chamberlain on 03/18/2014.

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Robyn Chamberlain
Created by Robyn Chamberlain over 5 years ago
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Individual Differences -Thigpen and Cleckley (1953)
1 Aim
1.1 To provide an account of the psychotheraputic treatment of a 25 year old female, a case involving an individual considered who has MPD.

Annotations:

  • It was seen as a signifcant aim as whilst MPD was a well known condition, little was known and written about it as it was seen as either a forgotten or rejected idea within the psychological community.
2 Participant/Sample
2.1 Eve White (EW)

Annotations:

  • Original person/persona
  • Has no allergy to Nylon.
2.1.1 Eve Black (EB)

Annotations:

  • The first personality to appear within Eve White.
  • Claimed to have a allergy to Nylon and refused to have a stocking on for long periods.
  • Prone to be a liar. - Hit her daughter as EB, denied it until one day she admitted to it and making a comment I am unable to find at present.
2.1.1.1 Playful, harmful, uncaring and unaffected by human emotions.
2.1.1.2 Face is described to be pixie-like. Smiles constantly, always playful, mischievously.
2.1.1.3 Dresses provocatively, more exposed, colourful and showy.
2.1.1.4 Mischievous, hedonistic, has no cares in the world.
2.1.1.5 EEG scan showed 12.5 cycles - Assosiated with psychopathic personalities.
2.1.2 Jane

Annotations:

  • The second personaility to appear within Eve White.
2.1.2.1 Had some control over EW and her tasks, but could not displace EB.

Annotations:

  • Can tell when EB is lying.
2.1.2.1.1 Is aware of both Eves.
2.1.2.2 Appeared 8 months after Eve started therapy.
2.1.2.3 More responsible than EB and more confident than EV.
2.1.2.4 It was anticipated that she would intergrate all three personities, providing an appropriate solution to the therapy.

Annotations:

  • Anticipated by Thigpen and Cleckley.
2.1.2.5 Did not want EW to die.

Annotations:

  • When asked by Thigpen if they should kill EW she replies - "She must not die yet. There is so much I must know, and so much I must learn from her."
2.1.2.6 EEG scan showed 11 cycles - Which is deemed normal.

Annotations:

  • EEG - Electroencephalogram
2.1.3 Shy, honest, timid, demure, worries constantly.
2.1.3.1 Thigpen and Cleckley described her as 'almost saintly'.
2.1.4 Was referred to Thigpen and Cleckley due to 'severe and blinding headaches'.

Annotations:

  • Had -Blackout problems -Blinding Headaches -Marital Problems -Personal Problems
2.1.5 Dresses covered up, shy and dull. Face set is generally sweet & sad/neutral.
2.1.6 Attitude is serious, distressed at her current problem (MPD) and loves her daughter.
2.1.7 EEG scan showed 11 cycles - Which is deemed normal
3 Dissociative Identity Disorder

Annotations:

  • Also known as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD)
3.1 DID is an example of a neurotic* disorder. It is where a person has two or more separate personalities.

Annotations:

  • Neurotic* is a mental unbalance that causes or can result in distress.  
4 Methodology and Findings
4.1 Type of data

Annotations:

  • This study is mainly made up of Qualitative data.
4.1.1 Quantitative

Annotations:

  • The only form of Quantitative data within this study are the IQ tests and the EEG scans. However, the EEG scans lead to Qualitative data (Eve white and the assosiation with psychopathic personalities due to the 12.5 scan).
  • The EEG scans show obvious differences between Jane and EW scans and EB scan. This difference is seen as evidence to the individual personalities as an EEG is not something Thigpen and Cleckley believed to be easily faked.
4.1.2 Qualitiative

Annotations:

  • The qualitative data includes -The interviews from both Eve, her family and her friends. -The projective tests - The Memory Ability tests - The psychotheraputic interviews with Eve
4.2 A case study method was used as it was only one person (technically) being studied.

Annotations:

  • This was a longitudenal case study. It was 14 months long and Thigpen and Cleckley spent over 100 hours with Eve.
4.3 Treatment for Eve consisted of
4.3.1 Psychotheraputic interviews and Hypnosis with Thigpen and Cleckley.

Annotations:

  • Hypnosis used so the EW would let EB out. This stopped being used after a while as EB would later come out by being asked. This lead to EW worrying as it meant EB could control EW body at a higher extent.
4.3.2 Pscychometric tests to measure the IQ and memory ability.

Annotations:

  • For both Eve's and Jane which were then compared.
  • Eve White Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale IQ Score ~ 110 Wechsler-Bellevue Memory Test ~ Superior
  • Eve Black Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale IQ Score ~ 104 Wechsler-Bellevue Memory Test ~ Inferior
4.3.3 Projective Tests

Annotations:

  • Conducted on both Eves. The first is known as Rorshach's inkblot tests. Inkblots were shown to each personality and each personality has to announce the first thing that comes to mind. These tests gave insight to tje Eve's mental health and unconscious motives.
  • Eve White - Had an anxiety and obsessive compulsive trait. - Repression - Conflict and Anxiety in her role as a mother. - Hostility towards her own mother.
  • Eve Black -Test were deemed healthier than Eve Whites. -Regression - Wanted to go back to her life before she was married. (This matched her carefree, more mischievous view on life and her disreguard for both the debt she put EW and the husband in, and the hostility towards the daughter as it mean EW had responsibilites EB had to live with. - Was found to have 'hysterical tendencies'.
  • The second test (hich i forgot to add so it is here) is the Drawing of human figures test which does essentialy what the inkblot test is doing but it used for more accurate finding/diagnosises of Eve'spersonalities.
4.3.4 Treatment continued after Jane appeared, with the one body treated as one single person.
4.4 EB had no compassion for EW.

Annotations:

  • For instance - When EW was a littler girl her parents told her she could not go into the forst area at the back of her garden. EW then blacked out and the next thing she knew she was being told off by her parents. EB admits that she 'took over' EW so she could go play in the forest and let EW be present for the telling-off.
  • Another example would be - EB took control of EW's body and went out buying expensive clothes. When EW's husband started shouting at EW telling her that she was putting him in debt EW believed her husband had planted the clothes on her so she would look mad/feel mad (mad as in insane), EB confirmed that she had indeed gone out and bought expensive clothes as well as went out partying, buying cocktails and staying out all night, and then letting EW wake up to deal with the hangover. EW was confused on these mornings and wondered why she felt so sick.
4.5 EW family and friends were also interviewed.

Annotations:

  • To help consolidate instances within Eve's life for evidence of the MPD.
4.6 EB had learnt to take over EW and act like her.
4.7 The Letter

Annotations:

  • At the start of her therapy, EW started writing a letter to TH&CL but has no recollection of finishing it. EW believed she had stopped writing it and destroyed it. However, the letter was sent to TH&CL an all was in order apart from the last paragraph which was written in child-like handwriting, whick differed from the paragraphs above it.
  • This instance distressed EW as she was unaware of EB. EB was aware of both EW and her therapists.
5 Strengths
5.1 It's Longitudinal

Annotations:

  • Eve can be tracked throughout the 14 months she was being studied. Thigpen and Cleckley would be able to monitor Eve, why changes may occur - for example, how EB was able to gain more control over EW (because the therapists were asking EW to let EB take over more often the previously).
  • More data can be collected, there is more time during the study for it to be evaluated and then used to gain more information.
  • Studying Eve for such along time means that individual differences, such as accurate intelligence, can be measured. *The Treatment for Eve Consisted of
5.2 Data
5.2.1 Qualitative

Annotations:

  • The qualitative data is vast and plentiful within this study, it allows indepth reasoning and a multitude of evidence for Eve's supposed MPD.
  • The projective tests and the EEG scan are good examples of the qualitative data and the depth it gives Thigpen and Cleckley. These tests were conducted by independant experts, increasing inter0rater reliability.
5.2.2 Quantitative

Annotations:

  • Whilst there was little Quantitative data, the information that is has great relevance. The difference between EW IQ (110) and EB (104) can be seen as evidence towards DID and that there were indeed two seperate personas (at this time).
5.3 Limited Sample

Annotations:

  • If MPD is derived from issues such as child abuse then it is unlikely for another case to be the same.
5.4 Reliant on Self-Report

Annotations:

  • Thigpen and Cleckley do interview Eve's friends and family to help consolidate some of Eve's recollections.
6 Weaknesses
6.1 Low Ecological Validity

Annotations:

  • The interview/information gathered from Eve was either from her interviews or her friends and family.
  • It is believed by some that she was acting for the 100+ hours of interview. If she was interviewed, or even covertly followed, outside of the therapy session, the study could have had a higher Ecological validity. (This can be used for 'improve proceedure' question. But be more specific, ethical and anaylitical)
6.2 Reliant on Self-report

Annotations:

  • Eve may give answers on a social desirability basis, wary of seeming abnormal to Thigpen and Cleckley.
  • The data from this study is unique solely to Eve and this specific study. It cannot be generalised.
  • The study is retrospective. The EW is looking back on her life and may not be recalling incidents as they were completely accurately. Some she may not be aware of and, in turn, something Thigpen and Cleckley will not be aware of.
6.3 It's Longitudinal

Annotations:

  • Thigpen and Cleckley may have become attached to Eve and her personas creating a bias within the study findings.
6.4 Qualitative Data

Annotations:

  • There is more chance for Eve to give socially desirable answers. This makes the information unreliable.
6.5 Limited Sample

Annotations:

  • Can be seen as both a strength and a weakness. A weakness as it only studying one person, the information collected from this study will not have great relevance with another MPD study.
7 How useful was this research
7.1 It helps put light on what MPD is, how it can differ and insight to the human mind.
7.2 All cases on MPD differ. But it gives proof at the disorder exists.
7.2.1 The number of people with this disorder is small, there can be no typical example of MPD.
8 Explanation
8.1 Thigpen and Cleckley were convinced that they had witnessed a case of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID).
8.2 Although Thigpen and Cleckley do not point to a specific reason as to why DID occured, but they did 'recieve wisdom' that it is a response, a defence mechanism, to child abuse. A away for the child to handle/protect themselves.

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