'State' Statements for Genetics I


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'State' Statements for Genetics I
  1. eukaryotic chromosomes are made of DNA and protein
    1. meiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei
      1. in karyotyping, chromosomes are arranged in pairs according to their structure
        1. in karyotyping, chromosomes are arranged in pairs according to their structure
        2. some genes have more than two alleles (multiple alleles)
          1. some genes are present on the X chromosome and absent from the shorter Y chromosome
            1. human female can be homozygous or heterozygous with respect to sex-linked genes
              1. in gel electrophoresis, fragments of DNA can move in an electric field and are separated according to their size
                1. gel electrophoresis of DNA is used in DNA profiling
                2. when genes are transferred between species, the amino acid sequence of polypeptides translated from them is unchanged because the genetic code is universal
                  1. two examples of current uses of genetically modified crops or animals
                    1. Animals
                      1. 1. Engineering animals to enhance production ◾Sheep produce more wool when engineered with the gene for the enzyme responsible for the production of cysteine - the main amino acid in the keratin protein of wool
                        1. 2. Engineering animals to produce desired products ◾Sheep engineered to produce human alpha-1-antitrypsin in their milk can be used to help treat individuals suffering from hereditary emphysema
                        2. Crops
                          1. Engineering crops to extend shelf life of fresh produce
                            1. the to contain a natural Insecticide
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