1.1.1 There are four stages of cognitive
development that all children go through:
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete
Operational and Formal Operational
18.104.22.168 Sensorimotor: Ages 0 - 2 years. Schemes are based on behaviours and
perceptions. At this age children mostly only think about things that are in front of
them, concentrating on what they are seeing and doing at that very instant.
22.214.171.124 Preoperational: Ages 2 - 7 years. Children are now able to talk about and think
about things that are beyond their immediate experience. children in this stage
still have trouble seeing things from another persons point of view.
126.96.36.199 Concrete Operational: Ages 7 - 11. Children are now able to see things from another
persons point of view as well as being able to classify objects to categories.
188.8.131.52 Formal Operations: Ages 11 - Adult. Develops the ability of abstract thinking
and to think outside themselves. Able to think about issues affecting society
1.2.1 The existence of only four stages of development has been examined. Many
theorists believe that the cognitive development process is more continuous
1.2.2 Believed in the importance of social interactions for development but overlooked
the effects ones cultural background and social group had on development.
2.1.1 There is a strong connection between
language and the development of thinking.
2.1.2 Social and cultural factors influence development and ones intelligence
2.1.3 Zone of Proximal Development: The learning zone in
between which one knows what they are and are not
ready to learn.
2.2.1 Vygotsky's theories were quite generalised. He died
before he had a chance to explain his theories in detail.
2.2.2 Vygotsky did not address the cognitive processes
that affect childhood development
2.2.3 Vygotsky put major emphasis on culture and social
processes and did not consider other methods
3.1.1 Piaget believed that development
had to come before learning
3.1.2 Vygotsky believed that development
and learning worked together through
socialisation and language
3.2 Biology vs. Culture/Social
3.2.1 Piaget believed that there was a
correlation between biological and
3.2.2 Vygotsky believed that
knowledge from social
connections stimulated cognitive
growth and development
4.1 Social Interaction is Important
4.1.1 Both Piaget and
Vygotsky believed that
played a crucial role in
4.1.2 Piaget believed that cognitive development is nurtured
by social interactions (learning from others)
4.1.3 Vygotsky believed that social
interaction was instrumental in
development and that it heavily
impacts thought and language