Europe 1945-64

Marcus  Danvers
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A level British History Mind Map on Europe 1945-64, created by Marcus Danvers on 04/07/2014.

Marcus  Danvers
Created by Marcus Danvers over 5 years ago
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Europe 1945-64
1 1945-51
1.1 NATO
1.1.1 A multi-national organisation established in 1949 which agreed to a system of mutual defence between members
1.1.2 The first NATO secretary General famously stated the goal of NATO was "to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down."
1.2 Cold war
1.2.1 The experssion was coined to describe the confrontation between the USA and Britain on one side and the Soviet Union on the other
1.2.2 Never led to a direct military conflict, there were many close shaves and indirect confrontations such as korea
1.2.3 It ended in 1990 with the collapse of communism in Easten Europe and the disintergration of the Soviet Union
1.3 Berlin airlift
1.3.1 On 24 of june 1948, the Soviet Union clost also road routes to berlin in breach of post war agreement
1.3.2 The west hit on the idea of using their superior air power to fly food and supplies to the two million west berliners
1.3.3 May 1949 Russia lift the blockade, in total 272,000 sorties were flow
1.4 Marshal aid
1.4.1 This was a programme of economic aid to europe proposed by George Marshall, the US foreign secretary in 1947.
1.4.2 Eventually $13 Billion was spent. Britain and France were the two chief beneficiaries.
1.4.3 The aim was to reduce the influence and attraction of communism, very strong in France, and to enable western European to buy US products.
1.5 Korean war
1.5.1 North Korea attacked South Korea in June 1950. Britain aligned itself with the US and started a program of rearmament. By 1951 defence spending had reached 20% of total expenditure or 7.6% of GDP
1.5.2 The outbreak of the Korean war in june 1950 pushed up the cost of commodity prices world wide, producing a new balance of payments crisis in britain, parly due to re-armament programme
1.6 Attom bomb
1.6.1 Bevin persuaded Attlee and the small cabinet committee consider the matter that Britain should become a nuclear power In Bevins word's, he wanted an attom bomb "with a bloody union jack on the top of it"
1.7 fellow traveler
1.7.1 Left-wing MP's of Labour were critical of there own party and Conservative policy of USA Corporation to contain communism, as the USA was the world champion of capitalism. They still had a sneakly admirationfor the Soviet Union
2 The Suez Canal Crises 1956
2.1 the Suez Canal
2.1.1 It was run by an international company, 44% of which was owned by the British government
2.1.2 ¾ of Europe’s oil came from the region, ½ through the canal
2.2 Nasser seize the Suez Canal
2.2.1 Nasser wanted to build the Aswan Dam which would provide 8 times as much electricity as the Egyptians had and increase Egypt’s fertile land by one-third
2.2.2 Argument with Ambassador led to JF Dulles cancelling America’s loans which left Nasser furious Seized canal to charge countries to use it
2.3 Out cry at the situation
2.3.1 The UN on the 2nd November the general assembly demanded a ceasefire on Anglo-french
2.3.2 Working class Labour voters were in support of giving Nasser a good hiding
2.4 Britain’s response
2.4.1 Then the idea came about for Israel to attack Egypt from one flank. France and Britain would be a peace keeping force and demand Israel and Egypt to withdraw 5 miles form the canal
2.4.2 Britain destroyed Egyptian air force; 13,500 British troops and 8,500 French troops landed at Port Said and began going South towards the Canal – BUT under pressure from US, Britain agreed a ceasefire and pulled out
2.5 USA refuse to get involved
2.5.1 USA’s policy was to try to get old colonial powers out of the Middle East in favour of US interests (i.e. 2/3 of known oil reserves in region). Special deals had been made between Saudis and Iranians
2.5.2 1956: Eisenhower was trying to get elected on a peace and prosperity ticket
2.5.3 USA controlled Panama Canal – it did not want international agreements emerging that would affect their ownership of the Panama Canal
2.6 The results
2.6.1 “Suez became four letter shorthand for the moment when Britain realised her new place in the world.” (Marr). She was never able to take independent action again
2.6.2 Eden resigned in January to be replaced by Macmillan
3 Churchill and cold war
3.1 "last great crusade"
3.1.1 Churchill "last great crusade was to stop a war, this time a nuclear one
3.2 Churchill's worries
3.2.1 Above all, he thought that if the atom bomb menace existed, Britain had better be as menacing as she could manage
3.3 Churchill's approach to Russia
3.3.1 With Stalin dead in 1953 Churchill Saw the opportunity to reopen friendlier relations with Moscow
4 EEC Failure
4.1 Macmillan economic recovery was hinged on a successful entry into the EEC
4.1.1 It was hoped that access to the dynamic market of western Europe with over 150 million consumers would revitalise Britian industry De gaulle veto there entry because he feared the "special relationship", the Having the cake and eating it ( Keeping the Commonwealth), cheap agriculture and britain dominating the EEC
5 Britian economic performance
5.1 Britain share of the world trade fell from 25% in 1950 to 15% 1964
5.2 Britain was slipping behind her competitors and was well on the way to becoming the "sick man of Europe"
6 Defence
6.1 There was a determined attempt to cut the burden of defence spending, which was far higher than any comparable European country - 10% of GDP
6.2 There was a increasted relyanse on Nuclear weapons as a deterrent and as a prop to great power status

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