Lloyd-George and the Coalition Government 1918-1922

Amelia S
Flashcards by Amelia S, updated more than 1 year ago
Amelia S
Created by Amelia S about 5 years ago


100 flashcards covering the Coalition Government led by David Lloyd-George from 1918 - 1922

Resource summary

Question Answer
What was the name given to the private secretaries that Lloyd-George during WW1, separate from the Civil Service? The "Garden Suburbs" of Downing Street - they lived in huts in the Garden at the end of the street
A Quote by Lloyd-George on one failure "I don't care; he must be a dead chicken by tonight"
After WW1 what was Lloyd-George referred to as? "The man who won the War"
What did DLG offer Asquith in 1918, and what was his reply? He offered to make Asquith Lord Chancellor, but he refused
Why was DLG more likely to stay in power if he continued the coalition with the Conservatives? After WW1 there were only 150 Liberal MPs still loyal to him, and the Conservatives had not won an election since 1902
What changed after 1918 which suggested the coalition might not have been the best idea? During the War there had been a common enemy, so the two parties could get along easier
Who made a cartoon of the Coalition in the style of a donkey-like creature with a head at either end, what did this represent, and why was it not completely accurate? David Lowe made the cartoon, showing the coalition to be "incapable of moving purposefully in any direction", however it ignored the few successes they did have
How many servicemen received ballot papers for the 1918 election? 2.7 million out of 3.9 million
How many actually voted, and why did some soldiers choose not to vote? Only 1/3 voted, as many soldiers had political apathy after the war
What percentage turnout was there for the 1918 election; was this significant? And what 59% turnout, which was lowest for the 20th Century However due to the Representation of the People Act (1918) there was twice the number of votes cast than in 1910
What was the 1918 nicknamed as and why? It was known as the "Coupon Election" since MPs had 'coupon's which then meant they were not going to be opposed by other Coalition Mps
Were the 'coupons' effective? Yes since 88% of MPs with them gained seats
A Quote by the Times on the 1918 Election "It was the most orderly campaign of our time"
What were the results of the 1918 Election? Coalition - 478 seats - 47.6% Other Conservative - 23 seats - 3.4% Asquithian Liberals - 28 seats - 12.1% Labour - 63 seats - 2.2%
What was significant about the Conservatives result, and what did this mean for Lloyd-George? The Conservatives had a majority even without the Coalition Liberals, and therefore Lloyd George was forced to keep all main actions his own doing, to show personal success and that the Conservatives were dependant upon him
What did the new Cabinet reflect? The Conservative Dominance in the House of Commons
Why was Bonar-Law a good partner for Lloyd George? He not only supposedly kept the Conservatives loyal to the Coalition, but also complemented DLG well by acting as a break to 'wilder policies' and judging what backbenchers would accept
What was suggested by Lloyd-George and supported by 95 Conservative MPs through a petition in March 1920? The permanent amalgamation of the two parties in 'fusion'. [NOTE: the petition was the closest LG ever came to achieving it]
When and why did Bonar Law resign? He resigned from the Leader of the Party/Cabinet in May 1921 due to throat cancer
Who was Bonar-Law replaced by; was this a good choice? Austin Chamberlain This was a bad choice as Chamberlain was out of touch with party feelings, and so helped speed up the fall of LG
When was the Ministry of Reconstruction set up and who was it led by? It was set up in 1917 and led by Liberal MP Christopher Addison
What did Addison take over head of after the election? The Ministry of Health
What were the Ministry of Reconstruction's plans? - Housing Programme - Extension of the Unemployment Insurance - Abolition of the Poor law
What symbolised the end of Reconstruction? Addison's dismissal in July 1921
How many Britons were killed in WW1? How many died from Spanish Flu? How many were wounded? 745,000 people (9% of all men under 45) 150,000 people 1.6 million wounded
Roughly how many people were receiving some sort of War Pension? 3.5 million soldiers, widows and orphans
What effects did the war have on the British economy? - Many markets were lost - Major debts were incurred since debtors refused to pay up (RUSSIA) - Over-investment in staple industries (iron & steel, shipbuilding, coal, textiles) - Short-term boom which led to spiralling inflation
What came after the spiralling inflation? The raising of Interest Rates and depression in the winter of 1920/1921
What were unemployment levels at during the depression? December 1920: 300,000 -> 700,000 unemployed June 1921: Over 2 million unemployed
Which policy were MPs still against meaning the depression at first could not be lessened? What was instead done? They were still against Import Tariffs, and so an "Anti-Waste" campaign was made
How much did the Chancellor state departments would have to cut combined in the 1921 budget? £175 million
Why was Eric Geddes brought in not so long after? The departments could only find £75 million to cut
In the end how much did "Geddes Axe" find to cut? £64 million
What percentage of Government spending was cut in the 1922 budget, and what did this mean for potential schemes? There was a 12% cut and therefore schemes such as raising school leaving age from 14-15 were abandoned
What did the 1920 Agriculture Act do? It guaranteed a minimum price for producers even in falling markets
What happened to the Agriculture Act and what did this cause? The Government was forced to abandon the Act during the depression, causing the alienation of 40-50 MPs (who had farmer constituents)
What section of Politics was hit the worst in the depression? Reconstruction
In 1920 the Unemployment Insurance Act extended that of the previous decade. What were the changes made? It now covered almost all workers earning less than £250 yearly - roughly 12 million people Insured men could now claim 15s (and women 12s) for a max. of 15 weeks in one year Still excluded agricultural workers and domestic servants
What was created in 1921 in the second extension of the Unemployment Insurance Act? ''The Dole'' for those uninsured or had their 15 weeks used Went to ''those genuinely seeking work'' Benefit could now be paid for two 16 week periods Also allowed for dependants = 5s for wife = 1s for each child (max. 4)
What other area of money distribution was also increased during the beginning of reconstruction? Pensions
How many homes were unfit for human habitation after WW1? 400,000
What did Addison therefore set up to help with this housing shortage? 11 Regional Commissions which encouraged local authorities to build new houses which were to be subsided by the Government
How would these housing subsidies work? Cash would be given to make the difference between the cost of building and the amount raised in rent
What else was done to encourage councils to build more houses? It was made easier for councils to demolish slums and acquire building land
Were these house-building policies successful? No since councils were hesitant to build houses Also bricklayers were in shorter supply and builders opted for more profitable tasks
How many houses had been built by July 1921? How many during the Coalition Government's time in power? 100,000 by July 1921 170,000 between 1918 and 1922
What was the slogan created by the Coalition Government during the 1918 Election, which was later hijacked and distorted by the public "Homes fit for Heroes" ↓ "Homes only Heroes would agree to live in"
Why was it later suggested that Addison spent his money unwisely? Houses during his scheme cost £910 to build each, whereas a few years later it only cost £385
When did Addison resign and what did this mean for his subsidy? He resigned in July 1921, and this meant existing subsidiaries could not be honoured [NOTE: the subsidiaries were stopped altogether after Geddes Axe]
Why was militancy common among trade unions after the war? They stemmed from the Bolshevik revolution which had occurred in 1917
How many workers went on strike in Glasgow in July 1919 and what for? 70,000 went on strike for a shorter working week
What was Lloyd-George's reaction to these strikes? He sent in troops - the Government was criticised for heavy-handed tactics
What did Lloyd-George refuse to do which angered many of the miners? Permanently nationalise the mines after World War 1
When and why was the Sankey Commission set up? It was set up in 1919 to stop a growing threat of a miners strike, but Lloyd-George refused to accept its recommendation of nationalisation [NOTE: Tory backbenchers supposedly gave him no choice]
What did not help with the miners anger? The fact that the owners made bad impressions on the workers [NOTE: one suggested that coal dust was good for miners lungs]
What other than Mines were returned to private owners after the War? The Railway industry
How many working days were lost in 1921? 86 million days
What seemed possible in April 1921? A General Strike
However what stopped a General Strike from taking place? Lloyd-George split up the "Triple Alliance", and so the miners went on strike on their own [NOTE: in this case, the triple alliance is Railwaymen, miners and transport workers]
How many working days were lost in 1922 and what caused this increase/decrease? under 20 million days were lost. The recession decreased militancy
How many seats did Sinn Fein win in the December 1918 election? 73 seats
What did Sinn Fein do next? They formed their own Government in Ireland "Dail Eirann" and proclaimed Ireland an Independent Republic
What happened at the same time as Sinn Fein setting up the Government? The Irish Republican Army (IRA) was set up
What did the Coalition mean for the "Irish Problem"? It meant there was no obvious solution as the two parties wanted different things
Which side of the debate did Lloyd-George support first; how did he support it? He supported the Conservatives, and so tried to restore "Law and Order" in the south using the 'Black and Tans' [NOTE: these were ex-Irish servicemen]
When was Marshall Law imposed in Ireland? December 1920
What happened on the 21st November 1920? Bloody Sunday - Irish shot British agents and British troops retaliated later that day by firing into an unarmed Irish crowd
How many died between January 1919 and July 1921 in Ireland? Nearly 1,000 people
What were the two parties reactions to the Irish situation in early 1921? Conservatives - most supported it Liberal - many were outraged
What happened in July 1921? Lloyd-George's policy was reversed and a Truce was signed
After the Truce was signed, who did Lloyd George meet with in October 1921? De Valera, Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith in London
What was surprising about the results of these negotiations? The Irish wanted a united and Republic Ireland but got neither things in the compromise
Why did this compromise end in such a way? Lloyd-George was a skilled negotiator Ulster was an integral part of the UK and so had to stay
When was the Anglo-Irish Treaty signed and what were the terms agreed Signed 6th December 1921 - Ireland got Dominion Status - Ulster was still part of UK [NOTE: these terms were only agreed on after LG threatened the resumption of war]
CONCLUSIONS ON THE SOLUTION TO THE 'IRISH QUESTION' - Good policy considering the situation, as most Conservatives voted for it - However it helped cause the fall of Lloyd-George as it was hated in Ireland and led to Civil War
What did Bonar-Law say after the fact about the Treaty? He would not have voted for it had he known what the cost would be
What was Lloyd-George's role in Versailles? A Peacemaker
What was sent to Lloyd-George at Versailles in April 1919? A telegram signed by 233 MPs expressing their fear that the Treaty would be too lenient
What did Liberals such as Maynard Keynes suggest? That the Treaty was too harsh - Keynes wrote an influential book on it titled "Economic Consequences of the Peace"
Who did Lloyd-George agree with? The Liberals - he believe Germany needed to reconcile with France [NOTE: this however simply did not work]
Which Treaty was negotiated with Turkey after the end of WW1 and what did it lead to? The Treaty of Sevres, which caused a nationalist uprising since it was so harsh
What did the new leader of Turkey want; what did he therefore do? He wanted Smyrna from Greece, and so sent an army which massacred 100,000 Greeks there
What was the problem with the army next pushing to the Daredenelles? Chanak was on the border and this was being guarded by Britain, France and Italy
When the troops got word they were in danger, what happened next? France and Italy withdrew, but Lloyd-George told the British troops to stay and force an ultimatum on the Turks
Why was this a bad action on Lloyd-George's part? - He was seen as warmongering - The British public were against this
What did the British general actually do and what did this eventually lead to? The General stationed in Chanak disobeyed orders and instead negotiated and signed a pact with the Turks. This pact eventually led to the Treaty of Lausanne [NOTE: Lausanne was a replacement of Sevres]
How did Lloyd-George's policy in Chanak offend the Conservatives? The Conservatives were pro-Turk, and LG's actions had been pro-Greek
What was the Honors Scandal? What did Lloyd-George did Lloyd-George establish from it? LG was accused of selling knighthoods and peerages to some disreputable people. From it he established a private political fund
The Honours Scandal showed what of Lloyd-George and the Liberals? Their 'Moral Bankruptcy'
Why were the Conservatives seen as hypocrites when they complained about the Honors Scandal? They pocketed half the money from it
List several other actions of LG which showed his character = September 1921: called a cabinet meeting in Inverness (Scotland) to suit his holiday plans = leaked information to the press = had a mistress which he was unfaithful to
Who called a Conservative Party meeting on the 19th October 1922 and where was it held? Austin Chamberlain called a Party meeting at the Carlton Club
Chamberlain stated what at the Conservative Party? Who disagreed with him? Chamberlain stated the Conservatives could not win the next election on their own, however Baldwin said otherwise
Who was more moderate in his speech at the Carlton Club? Bonar-Law
The Motion for the Party to fight the next election on their own ____________ passed with 187 to 87 MP votes
What did the Carlton Club lead to? The resignation of Chamberlain as Party Leader, and Lloyd-George as premier later that same day
CONCLUSION ABOUT WHY LLOYD-GEORGE FELL Not all MPs voted independence during the Carlton Club for the same reason; there were many areas they were dissatisfied with
QUOTE FROM ASQUITH ON THE 1919-22 GOVERNMENT "The worst Government I have ever seen"
How did Tory MP Mowat describe Lloyd-George "A genius with a double dose of everything, good and bad"
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