Research Methods

Kayleigh Wain
Mind Map by Kayleigh Wain, updated more than 1 year ago
Kayleigh Wain
Created by Kayleigh Wain almost 6 years ago


Mind Map on Research Methods, created by Kayleigh Wain on 04/25/2014.

Resource summary

Research Methods
1 Evaluating research
1.1 1. Identification of the source
1.1.1 when, where, peer reviewed?
1.2 2. Analysis of argument
1.2.1 Theory? alternatives? concepts defined? hypothesis and questions appropriate?
1.3 3. Examination of methodology
1.3.1 Particpants representative? sample? design? reliability and validity
1.4 4. Evaluation of results
1.4.1 Appropriate stats? reliable and clearly presented results? results support hypothesis?
1.5 5. Analysis of conclusions and interpretations
1.5.1 Conclusions logical? overly speculative? alternative explanations explored? does it just re-state the results?
2 Experimental designs
2.1 Independent and dependent variables
2.2 1 tailed vs 2 tailed hypotheses
2.2.1 1 tailed - know the direction of outcome
2.2.2 2 tailed - don't know direction of outcome e.g. is there a difference at all?
2.3 Error - influence of other variables other than the IV
2.4 experimental designs involving groups of participants
2.4.1 Between participants 1 factor e.g. mood level and 2 or more conditions e.g. 30 mins exercise vs no exercise Matched - when there are likely to be errors
2.4.2 Within participants/repeated measures Each participant takes part in all conditions - looking at changes within person
2.4.3 More complex designs Multi-level more than 2 conditions from the IV Factorial - more than one IV Multivariate - more than one DV measured Mixed - within and between participants measured Covariate - covarying factors on DV subtracted out
2.5 Single participants
2.5.1 AB design - A (baseline) B (intervention)
2.5.2 ABAB design. Gap of time in between and repeated
2.5.3 Multiple baseline - lots of baselines taken then measured over time with intervention
2.5.4 Changing criterion design - changing intervention and measuring over time
3 Describing and displaying data
3.1 Descriptive vs Inferential statistics
3.2 Nominal data - labels, names
3.3 Ordinal - 1st, 2nd, agree disagree
3.4 Interval vs ratio - equal data. ratio has true zero
3.5 Measures of central tendancy - mean, median, mode
3.6 Measures of spread - range, variance, SD
3.7 Frequency distributions
4 Statistical tests of difference
4.1 1 independent variable 2 conditions
4.1.1 Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed ranks test nonparametric ordinal data experimental design - repeated
4.1.2 Mann-Whitney U test experimental design - independent ordinal data nonparametric
4.1.3 Related t-Test experimental design - repeated interval/ratio data normal distribution
4.1.4 unrelated t-Test experimental design - independent normal distribution interval/ratio data
4.2 there are others but ill have a job remembering those>>>
5 Correlation and regression
5.1 positive vs negative vs no correlation
5.2 regression
5.2.1 predicting score using the correlation (once you know X you can predict Y)
6 Multivariate analysis
6.1.1 Analysis of Variance A method of statistical analysis for analysing experiments where there are two or more variables. Also examines any interactions between variables
6.1.2 one-way related ANOVA repeated measures or matched perform under all conditions of the variable
6.1.3 one way unrelated ANOVA unrelated participants perform under each condition
6.1.4 two-way related ANOVA complex parametric test examining interaction between 2 variables e.g noise level of child am vs pm and how well they do maths
6.1.5 two way unrelated ANOVA unrelated - which treatment works best and is the SLT experienced or not?
6.1.6 two way mixed ANOVA
7 Statistical tests for Nominal data
7.1 Binomial sign test
7.1.1 each condition 50% - better or worse? yes or no?
7.2 Binomial test
7.2.1 2 conditions + expected and observed - significant difference?
7.3 Fisher's exact test
7.3.1 2 independent samples compared for a correlation
7.4 Chi-square test
7.4.1 Like fisher's exact test but bigger data and goodness of fit
8 tests of correlation/association
8.1 chi-square
8.1.1 nominal
8.1.2 non-parametric
8.2 spearman's rho
8.2.1 ordinal
8.2.2 non-parametric
8.3 pearson's r
8.3.1 interval/ratio
8.3.2 parametric
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