Struggle For Power 1924-1928

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Struggle for Power in Russia 1924-1928 for History AS Level Stalin's Russia

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Struggle For Power 1924-1928
1 Lenin's Legacy
1.1 Bolsheviks' Problems
1.1.1 The Socialist Revolutionary Party were much bigger and more popular than the Bolsheviks.
1.1.2 Most of the Bolsheviks' support came from the working class, which made up a small percentage of the population at the time.
1.1.3 The Bolsheviks' domestic and foreign enemies tried to overthrow them in the Civil War.
1.2 Lenin's Testament
1.2.1 Lenin recommended the Bolsheviks replace Stalin as soon as possible.
1.2.2 He said Trotsky was the most capable man amongst the main figures.
1.2.3 He said Kamenev's and Zinoviev's failure to support the armed uprising in Oct 1917.
1.2.4 He praised Bukharin for his intellect and popularity. He said his ideas weren't truly Marxist, which jeopardised the revulution.
1.3 Future of the USSR
1.3.1 No one knew how the new socialist state was going to survive.
1.3.2 No one knew how the country's economy was going to be organised.
1.3.3 No one knew who would replace Lenin as leader of the communist party.
2 Candidates to Succeed Lenin
2.1 Lev Kaminev (1883-1936)
2.1.1 Strengths
2.1.1.1 He let the Moscow Soviet and developed a secure power base in the city.
2.1.1.2 He was intelligent.
2.1.2 Weaknesses
2.1.2.1 He often disagreed with Lenin on many aspects. This was important because loyalty to Lenin was increasingly important after his death.
2.1.2.2 He was one of two members to vote against an armed uprising in October 1917.
2.2 Gregory Zinoviev (1883-1936)
2.2.1 Strengths
2.2.1.1 He was appointed head of the Petrograd Soviet in 1918
2.2.1.2 He was a close associate of Lenin.
2.2.2 Weaknesses
2.2.2.1 He had voted against the armed uprising in Oct 1917.
2.2.2.2 He was very ambitious and made many enemies.
2.3 Nikolai Bukharin (1888-1938)
2.3.1 Strengths
2.3.1.1 After the Oct Rev, Bukharin was appointed editor of the newspaper Pravda.
2.3.1.2 Lenin once called him the "darling of the party"
2.3.1.3 He was very popular as his introduction to communism has sold many copies.
2.3.2 Weaknesses
2.3.2.1 He has headed up the first communist opposition group, the Left Communists, who criticised Lenin's decision to make peace with Germany in 1918.
2.3.2.2 He wasn't a very shrewd or skilful politician.
2.4 Leon Trotsky (1879-1940)
2.4.1 He became revolutionary as a teenager but started out as a Menshevik. He joined the Bolsheviks in 1917.
2.4.2 Leadership
2.4.2.1 He was made Commissar for Foreign Affairs after the October Revolution.
2.4.2.1.1 He led negotiations with Germany and agreed to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918.
2.4.2.2 Trotsky earned some popularity for negotiating peace with Germany but he was also strongly criticised for losing vast areas of the western part of the former Russian Empire to Germany.
2.4.2.3 When the Civil War broke out, Trotsky became Commissar for War - he was responsible for the new Red Army, which he made into an effective fighting force.
2.4.2.4 During the war, Trotsky travelled across Russia in his armoured train to visit the soldiers on the front line. He gave inspirational speeches to the troops to keep up their morale.
2.4.3 Support Issues
2.4.3.1 The Peasants
2.4.3.1.1 The didn't support him because he organised the grain requisition squads during the Civil War.
2.4.3.1.2 The squads used force to requisition the grain.
2.4.3.2 The Proletariat
2.4.3.2.1 His intelligence didn't impress them.
2.4.3.2.2 They favoured Stalin because he was modest and had a humble background.
2.4.3.3 The Red Army
2.4.3.3.1 They were Trotsky's main support.
2.4.3.3.2 He had created the Red Army and led it to victory so he was very popular with the officers and soldiers.
2.4.3.4 The Communist Party
2.4.3.4.1 Trotsky only joined the Bolsheviks in 1917. People believed he wasn't devoted to the party because of his background.
2.4.3.4.2 He was popular with young, radical members.
2.4.3.4.3 He never tried to gain supporters.
2.4.3.4.4 They feared he would use his popularity with the Red Army.
2.5 Joseph Stalin (1979-1953)
2.5.1 He had played a minor role in the October Revolution, but his Georgian origins helped to become the Commissar for Nationalities in 1917.
2.5.2 Stalin used his position to increase his personal power and influence.
2.5.2.1 He has complete control over the inner workings of the Communist Party.
2.5.2.2 He used his position to promote his supporters and remove or sideline his opponents.
2.5.2.3 He had access to secret files on party members that he received from the Cheka.
2.5.2.4 He used the Lenin Enrolment to create a large group of supporters in the party.
2.5.2.5 He could relate to the peasants as he had risen from very humble origins.
2.5.2.6 He promoted the Cult of Lenin.
2.5.2.6.1 Stalin made a speech portraying Lenin as a god-like figure and himself as Lenin's natural successor. In this speech, he promised to preserve Lenin's legacy.
3 USSR's Future
3.1 NEP
3.1.1 Main Features
3.1.1.1 Small, privately owned industry and private trading were permitted.
3.1.1.2 Heavy industry, transport and banks remained under state control.
3.1.1.3 Grain requisitioning was replaced with a small tax.
3.1.1.4 Peasants were allowed to sell their surplus food for a profit.
3.1.2 Bukharin
3.1.2.1 He felt the NEP should continue for a while because it was providing food for the cities and work for the proletariat.
3.1.2.2 He told the peasants to enrich themselves and buy goods to promote the industry.
3.1.2.3 He believed there should be a smychka (alliance) between the peasants and workers.
3.1.3 Trotsky
3.1.3.1 He resented the fact that the USSR's industry wasn't under the direct control of the government because of the NEP.
3.1.3.2 He hated the Nepmen who made large profits for the NEP.
3.1.3.3 He felt that communism hadn't truly spread to the countryside, and he wanted to end the inequality between poor peasants and the kulaks.
3.1.3.4 He wanted to abolish private farms and introduce collective farming.
3.2 Trotsky vs. Stalin
3.3 Protecting Communism
4 Stalin's Victory
4.1 The Triumvirate
4.2 The Duumvirate
4.3 The Second Duumvirate
4.4 Stalin vs. Right Opposition
4.5 Stalin Won
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