What are the issues being faced in the CBD?

RoryFlynn2
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-level Geography G2 (2.4 - Issues being faced in the CBD) Mind Map on What are the issues being faced in the CBD?, created by RoryFlynn2 on 05/12/2013.

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RoryFlynn2
Created by RoryFlynn2 over 6 years ago
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What are the issues being faced in the CBD?
1 CBD structure
1.1 Bid rent curve
1.1.1 High rent - close to CBD
1.1.1.1 Retail
1.1.1.2 Offices
1.1.2 Low rent - Further from CBD
1.1.2.1 Residential - suburbs
1.2 Inner core
1.2.1 Dept stores
1.2.2 Specialised shops
1.2.3 High rise office blocks
1.2.4 Commercial offices - banks
1.3 Outer core
1.3.1 Smaller shops
1.3.2 Theatres
1.3.3 Leisure
1.3.4 Public administration
1.3.5 Offices
1.4 Frame
1.4.1 Social services
1.4.2 Autosales + services
1.4.3 Education
1.4.4 Transport terminals
1.4.5 Multi-story car parks
1.4.6 Light manufacturing
1.4.7 Wholesale services
1.5 Difference between zones?
1.5.1 Amount of people
1.5.2 Size of buildings
1.5.3 Use of buildings
1.5.4 Traffic
1.5.5 Landscaping
1.5.6 Environmental quality
1.5.7 Land value
1.5.8 Type + quality of shops
2 Why does the CBD change?
2.1 Decentralisation of activities
2.1.1 Movement of housing and people
2.1.1.1 Cheaper land
2.1.1.2 Improvement of transport
2.1.1.3 Pollution
2.1.1.4 Development of suburbs
2.2 Manufacturing
2.2.1 Example: Cadbury
2.2.1.1 Moved from Birmingham centre to Bourneville - 4 miles out
2.2.1.2 Countryside was a nicer place to work
2.2.1.3 Car ownership increased
2.2.1.3.1 More land = more parking spaces
2.2.1.3.2 Better access
2.3 Retail
2.3.1 Easier access - usually located by main road intersection/ junction
2.3.1.1 Example - Cribbs Causeway
2.3.2 Out of town shopping became more popular
2.3.2.1 Everything in one place
2.3.3 Easy + free parking
2.3.4 Large anchor stores
2.4 Offices
2.4.1 Easy access
2.4.2 More land/ space
2.5 All factors why CBD change lead to dessertion of CBD = Urban Doughnut
2.5.1 DECENTRALISATION!
3 Case study: Merry Hill shopping Centre, Dudley
3.1 CBD decline
3.1.1 Land on outskirts cheaper
3.1.2 More space on outskirts
3.1.3 Less pollution on outskirts
3.1.4 Easier access than in CBD
3.1.5 Rise in car ownership results in people willing to travel further
3.1.5.1 Leisure shopping
3.1.6 City centres
3.1.6.1 Ageing
3.1.6.2 Dirty
3.1.6.3 Unsafe
3.1.6.4 Poor infrastructure
3.1.7 Cost of upkeep and development of the CBD much higher than out of town
3.2 Initial 25% fall in retail employment in Dudley centre
3.3 70% reduction in retail trade as a result of Merry HIll
3.4 Anchor stores like M&S, Curry's, Littlewoods closed in CBD and reopened in Merry Hill
3.5 Dudley - 190 shops 1985
3.5.1 127 shop 1997
3.6 Even Birmingham CBD struggling
3.6.1 Birmingham - Reviving the CBD
3.6.1.1 International convention centre opened 1991
3.6.1.1.1 Attracted high profile conferences
3.6.1.1.1.1 Olympic committee
3.6.1.1.1.2 G7 world leaders
3.6.1.1.1.3 Eurovision song contest
3.6.1.2 National Indoor Arena
3.6.1.2.1 Multi-purpose sports complex
3.6.1.3 Broadstreet redevelopment
3.6.1.3.1 Nightclubs
3.6.1.3.2 Hotels
3.6.1.3.3 Restaurants
3.6.1.3.4 Canal-side cafes
3.6.1.4 Hyatt Regency Hotel
3.6.1.4.1 Birmingham's first 5* hotel
3.6.1.4.1.1 Cost £38 million
3.6.1.5 Shops encouraged to stay open for longer
3.6.1.6 Special events - music festivals
3.6.1.7 Result?
3.6.1.7.1 5% increase between 1995-1997 of retail trade
3.6.2 15km away - 12% retail decline between 1990-1995

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