Penicillin

Niamh MacElvogue
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Edexcel iGCSE history

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Niamh MacElvogue
Created by Niamh MacElvogue over 5 years ago
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Penicillin
1 Fleming
1.1 First to publish findings on penicillin although...
1.1.1 1870s - Sanderson observed that very little grew near penicillin mould
1.1.2 Lister successfully used on a nurse but took it no further
1.1.3 He was first to realise the potential significance
1.2 Sent to work in a hospital (WW1)
1.3 Working to kill staphylococcus germ
1.4 Mould grew mistakenly on a germ plate and he realised that it had killed the germs (1928)
1.5 1929 - Published a report of his findings
1.5.1 No one took notice at the time
2 Florey and Chain
2.1 Became interested in penicillin in the 1930s
2.1.1 Fleming had since lost interest
2.1.2 Applied to government for money to begin research
2.1.2.1 Received only £25 but were lucky to get this much as by 1939, WWII had begun
2.2 Despite the lack of money, they managed to produce enough to test on 8 mice
2.2.1 This was successful
2.2.2 Needed 3000 times more to test on a human
2.3 Over some months they collected enough penicillin to use on one human
2.3.1 The man they tested on was a man called Albert Alexander (1940)
2.3.2 The treatment was successful until they ran out and he passed away
2.3.2.1 However it was successful as it proved penicillin's success
2.4 1941 - US government approached for funding to mass produce and it was given
2.5 1943 - enough to treat 1000 men, by 1944 - enough to treat 40,000 cases, at the end of the war - enough for 250,000
3 Importance of penicillin
3.1 15% of soldiers could have died without it
3.2 After the war, the antibiotic was made widely available and saved the lives of millions
3.3 The diseases that penicillin treats includes bronchitis, pneumonia and meningitis
3.4 More antibiotics followed including mitomycin in 1956 which is a chemotherapy drug
3.5 1000s of injured soldiers could return to battle more quickly

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