http://glencoe.mheducation.com/sites/0024122010/student_view0/ http://psi.mheducation.com/current/psi.php https://www.apstudynotes.org/world-history/outlines/ https://www.albert.io/ap-world-history https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S55B-JOvy_Y&list=PL-oeUYeNusa_Ixof_VfSp71IEp-Cp8aa4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=51s6Y2YcerU&list=PL-oeUYeNusa-kPTI34UyZtnorPPb-Q5zh
This chapter addresses the physical evolution of the species and their migrations throughout the globe, as well as the revolutionary transformation from all humans surviving by hunting and gathering to the majority living in agricultural societies. The results of this remarkable transformation include the following: An unprecedented population explosion due to the increase in the food supply Permanent settlement in villages and, later, in cities The specialization of labor, which led to the development of craft industries and other professions The opportunity to accumulate wealth and the resulting emergence of social class differences The development of fertility-based religions and the increasing elaboration of religious institutions
The Neolithic era (neo=new, lithic=stone) marks the transition from hunter-gatherers to agricultural societies. This first “agricultural revolution,” often referred to as the Neolithic Revolution, was the beginning of a time of major changes in human culture. The systemic cultivation of plants by women, and the domestication of animals by men meant not only more food, but also a shift away from egalitarianism between genders. The Neolithic Revolution was not a simple or singular event. Slash‐and‐burn agriculture led to the cultivation of new foods, but also contributed to the movement of peoples that had been part of the hunter‐ gatherer societies. What the Neolithic Revolution did was to provide not only more food but also a constant supply. This increased food supply allowed populations to grow, spurred on the development of villages, developed a group of specialized laborers (since not everyone now had to be a farmer), and in the Tigris‐Euphrates Valley, led to the rise of cities.