Chapter 22

Argjend Krasniqi
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The Transformation of the West, 1450-1750 notes

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Argjend Krasniqi
Created by Argjend Krasniqi about 1 year ago
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The Italian Renaissance: Developed in Italy during the 14th and 15th century Largely in an artistic movement Challenged medieval intellectual values and styles humanism: a focus on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor Secular subjects were more popular, such as love and pride Merchants improved banking techniques Religion was not attacked, but its principles were not longer predominant The Renaissance moves northward: Atlantic trade routes reduced the need of Mediterranean ports Huge blow to Italian economy Focused in France, Germany and England Began after the 1450s Changes in tech and family:    The printing press was produced when German Johannes Gutenberg introduced moveable types Books were distributed in greater amounts People got their ideas out European-style family: pattern came into being by the 15th century Late marriage age and nuclear families parents and children Goal was to limit birth rates People didn't marry until after 20s   The Protestant and Catholic Reformations:   Protestantism: urged state control of the church as an alternative to papal authority and this had obvious political appeal Jean Calvin, a French theologian who established his base in the Swiss city of Geneva He believed in gods predestination Calvinists preached God's words Wanted wider access to gov Catholic Reformation: a major church council revived Catholic doctrine and refuted key Protestant tenets such as the idea that priests had no special sacramental power and could marry Jesuits became active in politics, education and missionary work, regaining some parts of Europe for the church The End of Christian Unity in the West: Thirty Years War: weakened German power so much that it last for a whole century Treaty of Westphalia: agreed to the territorial tolerance concept: a cities choice of one religion   The Commercial Revolution: Impacts of the new world economy: European trade rose Europeans had some dank items Markets and merchants got better   The impact of the World Economy: Price inflation occurred throughout the Western Europe during the 16th century Import of gold and silver from Spain’s new colonies in Latin America More money more supply Prices went up Rise in the production of wines, cheeses, wool and etc Shoemaking, pottery, metalworking and other manufacturing jobs Arose in rural villages and cities Social Protest: Witchcraft Persecution: 60,000-100,000 witches died Witches: people who couldn’t accept being poor   The Scientific Revolution: The Next Phase of Change New instruments: The microscope Telescope Allowed for gains in biology and astronomy As feudalism declined in Western Europe, new political forms gained ground. Both absolute and parliamentary monarchies emerged The feudal monarchy: the balance between kings and nobles Witchcraft declined 1670 Elites and Masses: Absolute Monarchy: (I am the state) Monarchs gained new powers, curtailing the tradition of noble pressure or revolt. At the same time, more ambitious military organization, in states that defined war as a central purpose, required more careful administration and improved tax collection The Nation-State: They ruled peoples who shared a common culture and language, unlike the great empires of other civilizations. This was true for England Louis XIV faced a bunch of hate when crops started to die and food prices went up because the gov didn’t do a damn thing to help  Political Patterns: In Prussia, Frederick the Great, built onto the military and bureaucratic organizations and made them better Major western nations who opened their mouths to new ideas went to war   Enlightenment Thought and Popular Culture: Adam Smith wanted to government to avoid regulation in favor of the operation of individual initiative and market forces Denis Diderot was a multifaceted leader of the French enlightenment best known for his work on the Encyclopedia He’s the reason we have all the answers for classes