Over View and Introduction to Hydrocarbons Liquid Pipelines
Pressure in the main lines that transport oils at long distances is initiated and maintained by pumps to over come friction, changes in elevation and other pressure decreasing factors. Transportation systems Contain Pipelines (mainlines and lateral) measurements facilities pumping systems pressure reduction facilities pipeline appartenances control systems for all of the above Types of Transmission Pipes Single Product : transporting a petroleum product in a single stream Gathering lines: sends crude oil or HC liquids to concentration points such as pipeline terminals Trunk or transmission lines transporting liquid HC products usually from pipeline terminals to tank farms, refineries/processing Multi-products pipelines: transporting generally multiples of hydrocarbon liquids in a batch form Categorized pipelines as per regulatory points of view offshore onshore gathering or flow lines transfer lines piping and manifolds breakout piping (tanks) (further explanation in slide 9) distribution pipelines/pipes Codes, Standards and Regulations codes are not legally binding , they represent the industry's norm for design and operationRegulations are legally binding and might make a reference to the codes. they define minimum reguirements for the pipelines and related facilities. these regulations encompass Design Construction Operation of pipeline system facilities
Major Pipeline layout pumping stations they're required to boost the pressure of the liquid hydrocarbon for the transportation through the entire transmission pipeline.centrifugal pumps are used because they can economically handle large volumes of product. they're require waste handling infrastructures, the option of handling and injection of additives Metering/Measurement used to quantitatively compare properties of fluid flow such as; mass, volume and energyTypes of measuring devices direct measurement devices *energy extractive* use fluid properties as direct measuring parameters ex: positive displacement meters & mass flow meters. Inferential Measurements devices *energy additive) use parameters other than the fluid properties such as electronic pulse counts, system and meter factors, linear and rotational velocities, from components of measuring devices to infer flow rate examples: turbine, orifice plate, votes shedding Meteringprimary, secondary, tertiary devices Control pressure regulation flow control overpressure protection Verification proving sampling quality measurement if the basis of trade between oil producers, royalty owners, transportation companies. they require components to :isolate and control the flow, components to protect the meter from contaminants flow conditioning elements meters Manifolds piping with valving arrangements to direct or divert flow of hydrocarbon liquids to and from pumps and pump stationsallows for both isolation of a facility and/or diversion of flow piping must be designed to avoid mechanical and flow induced vibrationGeneral Pipeline Operations dependent on (check intro slides) Nomination : pipeline operator receiving a request for shipment from various sources/customers for single or different products and to single or multiple locations. SCADA System: tracks the location of the shipment as it moves from the initial receipt point to its delivery point. SCADA regulations (last page).