Early Civilizations

Mary S.
Note by Mary S., updated more than 1 year ago
Mary S.
Created by Mary S. over 4 years ago
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9th Grade World History 1 Review

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Page 1

9th Grade World History 1 ReviewMesopotamia and Egypt

Similarities Between Mesopotamia and EgyptGeography: Egypt and Sumer were both situated on the fertile land. The climate there was hot in both places Both were seperated into upper and lower regions Political: Both had dynasties Both were at one point invaded Economy:*No economic notesSocial: Both had social classes (hierarchies) Both polytheistic Addtional (culture,systems,technology,events,ect.): Both civilizations developed irrigation systems Both had slaves (usually captives of war) Both developed their own way of writing and writing surfaces

Page 2

9th Grade World History 1 ReviewEarly Urban Civilizations: 8 Shared Characteristics (There is a visual version if that helps you more)

1. Cities: Populations when farmers settled in a city City walls helped with city defense Surplus allowed more people to come (because they would have food security) 2. Organized Central Government: Organized production of food supply. Oversaw buisness 3. Religion: Natural events were tied to the gods Polytheistic Insured bountiful harvests 4. Job Specialization: Military,farmers,artisans,and craftsman. Herdewrs and farmers wetre highly respected. 5. Writing:Necessary for record keeping6. Architecture and Art:Were very important and respected in their cultures.7. Public Works:Taxes for these8. Social Classes:Slaves were the least valued.

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9th Grade World History 1 ReviewMesopotamia

Sumerian City States Southern Mesopotamia Each city state has it's own king 80% population lived in city states (urban) Each had their own god Fights over resources (vunerable) Akkadian rlue (2350-2000 B.C.) Sumerian Rule (3500-2350 B.C.) Environmental Devastation Canal systems Dikes would break and flood the fields, they would have to rebuild them. - Problems caused by this: deforestation less fertile soil salination of soil Summary (so far): The Sumerian city states had a lot of environmental, and other problems.

Basis of power: -Rulers had to= irrigation system settle conflicts direct public works regulate food supplies protect privileges of the upper class

Defense:City wallsConflicts: land wealth foods water Kings armies emerge to plunder and improve the position of the king Stability and order allow for roads to be kept up, big buildings, and manage forests. Writing and Accounting: Writing was well valued as a gift from the gods. Served as an accounting function Number system (base 60) (for time) Recording who had paid their taxes. Recording how much workers had earned. Babylonian Empire Akkadian empire lasted 200 years, before the Babylonian empire. Hammurabi's code (the god Marduk wanted him to make laws) Cultural Diffusion Sumerians started sea born trade in 2300 to trade with India (Indus River Valley) Cultural Diffusion: Culture was being spread. Change in culture Were connected to Anatolia, Egypt, Iran, and Afganistan. Some were still nomads or herders were in these cities. Cuneiform spread along with gods and law codes.

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9th Grade World History 1 ReviewEgypt

Leadership and Government: Several city states of chiefdoms merged. Territory covered 1000 miles Pharaohs (gods in human form) Lasted 3000 years united -Ensured rising of the sun -Flooding of the river annually -Lived and died extravagantly Land owning class assumed more authority in 2400 B.C.E. River failed to flood in 2200 B.C.E. -Became less united -Lasted for about 200 years. By 1500 B.C.E. Egypt became an empire. Peacful (relatively) with other empires. Summary(so far): Leadership in Egypt relied primarily on the pharaohs. They controlled the river flooding and the sun. In 2200 the river did not flood and the people lost some trust in the pharaoh.Geography: Nile was predictable (flooding-wise) Less intrusive irrigation system. Natural barriers -sea -Sahara Desert -Waterfalls near the Nile Easy river to travel Weren't as dense of cities. (Less urban)

Writing: Used for record keeping. More artistic and pictorial Scribes were just as highly honored as Mesopotamian kings. Summary(so far): Due to the Egyptian geography there were some advantages provided to the Egyptians, as far as natural barriers go. Writing in Egypt was very different from Mesopotamia.Religion: Optimistic veiw Belief that the afterlife was a great place that anyone could go to as long as they behaved. Polytheistic Cultural Diffusion: Traded in Africa with Nubia (South of Egypt), East African Coast of Eithiopia and Somolia Greeks drew from Egypt and Mesopotamians. Chariot brought to them by the Hykos. Nubian archers recruited for the Egyptian military.

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