1. Epistemology, Photo Elicitation, Reflexivity and Social Construction

Ryan Bentham
Quiz by Ryan Bentham, updated more than 1 year ago
Ryan Bentham
Created by Ryan Bentham over 2 years ago
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Description

Qualitative Research

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Qualitative research uses
Answer
  • Images
  • Sounds
  • Observations of behaviours
  • Measurement
  • Words
  • Statistics

Question 2

Question
Epistemology is the theory of knowledge, especially with regard to it's methods, validity and scope, and the justified distinction between justified belief and opinion.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 3

Question
[blank_start]Epistemology[blank_end] is the theory of knowledge, especially with regard to it's methods, validity and scope, and the justified distinction between justified belief and opinion.
Answer
  • Epistemology

Question 4

Question
Epistemology is...
Answer
  • the branch of medicine which deals with the incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health.
  • the theory of knowledge, especially with regard to it's methods, validity and scope, and the justified distinction between justified belief and opinion.
  • a set of concepts and categories in a subject area or domain that shows their properties and the relations between them.

Question 5

Question
[blank_start]Qualitative[blank_end] research employs a large-grained sieve. [blank_start]Quantitative[blank_end] research is very structured. Sometimes important stuff cannot be [blank_start]quantified[blank_end]. [blank_start]Qualitative[blank_end] is more open-ended. [blank_start]Qualitative[blank_end] methods can help discover the unknown unknowns. Behind numbers, there is usually a [blank_start]qualitative[blank_end] judgement. [blank_start]Quantitative[blank_end] research employs a fine-grained sieve. Some things are better not [blank_start]quantified[blank_end]. [blank_start]Quantitative[blank_end] research is variable-centric.
Answer
  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative
  • quantified
  • qualified
  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative
  • qualitative
  • quantitative
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative
  • quantified
  • qualified
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative

Question 6

Question
[blank_start]Ontology[blank_end]: The nature of reality. [blank_start]Epistemology[blank_end]: The way we know what we know. [blank_start]Ideology[blank_end]: The relevance of values. [blank_start]Methodology[blank_end]: The role of the researcher, relationship with participants and the design of the research.
Answer
  • Ontology
  • Epistemology
  • Ideology
  • Methodology

Question 7

Question
Ontology is the way we know what we know.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 8

Question
Epistemology is the relevance of values.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 9

Question
Ideology is the relevance of values.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 10

Question
Ontology is the nature of reality
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 11

Question
Epistemology is the way we know what we know.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 12

Question
Epistemology is the
Answer
  • Way we know what we know
  • Nature of reality
  • Relevance of values

Question 13

Question
Ideology is
Answer
  • The way we know what we know
  • the relevance of values
  • The nature of reality

Question 14

Question
Ontology is
Answer
  • The relevance of values
  • The role of the researcher
  • The nature of reality
  • The way we know what we know

Question 15

Question
Methodology is
Answer
  • The role of the researcher
  • The nature of reality
  • The relationship with research participants
  • The design of the research
  • The way we know what we know
  • The relevance of values

Question 16

Question
Qualitative methods are not good for understanding participants' lived experiences.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 17

Question
[blank_start]Ontology[blank_end] is about the nature of reality.
Answer
  • Ontology

Question 18

Question
[blank_start]Epistemology[blank_end] is the way we know what we know.
Answer
  • Epistemology

Question 19

Question
[blank_start]Ideology[blank_end] is about the relevance of values.
Answer
  • Ideology

Question 20

Question
Further investigation of an incident may be required if a participant minimises their experience. For example, a participant says "just normal everyday losing the plot", is further investigation required to find out what losing the plot means?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 21

Question
If you are [blank_start]controlling[blank_end] the setting you’re more likely to be [blank_start]quantitative[blank_end], if you are [blank_start]observing[blank_end] you are more likely to be [blank_start]qualitative[blank_end].
Answer
  • controlling
  • quantitative
  • observing
  • qualitative

Question 22

Question
Qualitative research is pre-categorised, you say ahead of time what the valid response options will be.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 23

Question
The distinction between qualitative and quantitative research is very simple and easy to understand.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 24

Question
Quantifying things can be a hard habit to give up.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 25

Question
Quantitative research is often described as...
Answer
  • Research is value free.
  • Research is value-laden.
  • Technical competence is all that matters.
  • Research shaped by the culture, class, gender, life experience etc. of the researcher.
  • Researcher remains distant and uninvolved, subjects are often naive about the research.
  • Researcher is engaged with the research participants who play an active part in the study.
  • Researcher maintains control of the setting, often manipulating an independent variable (e.g. experiments).
  • Researcher observes whatever arises in the setting (e.g. naturalistic research).
  • Large pre-determined. Research often tests a hypothesis.
  • Flexible. Emergent. Research open to whatever is observed.

Question 26

Question
Qualitative research is often described as...
Answer
  • Research is value free.
  • Research is value-laden.
  • Technical competence is all that matters.
  • Research shaped by the culture, class, gender, life experience etc. of the researcher.
  • Researcher remains distant and uninvolved, subjects are often naive about the research.
  • Researcher is engaged with the research participants who play an active part in the study.
  • Researcher maintains control of the setting, often manipulating an independent variable (e.g. experiments).
  • Researcher observes whatever arises in the setting (e.g. naturalistic research).
  • Large pre-determined. Research often tests a hypothesis.
  • Flexible. Emergent. Research open to whatever is observed.

Question 27

Question
[blank_start]Case-centric[blank_end] research combines a [blank_start]small[blank_end] number of cases with a large number of variables and values. [blank_start]Variable-centric[blank_end] research examines a small number of variables and values over a [blank_start]large[blank_end] number of cases.
Answer
  • Case-centric
  • Variable-centric
  • small
  • large

Question 28

Question
What are students' experiences of the University campus? This is an exmaple of which type of research?
Answer
  • Case-centric
  • Variable-centric

Question 29

Question
The relationship between gender and safety on campus is an example of which type of research?
Answer
  • Case-centric
  • Variable-centric

Question 30

Question
Variable-centric research is [blank_start]quantitative[blank_end]. Case-centric research is [blank_start]qualitative[blank_end].
Answer
  • quantitative
  • qualitative

Question 31

Question
Design strategies for qualitative research includes [blank_start]Naturalistic inquiry[blank_end]: Studying real-world situations as they unfold naturally; Nonmanipulative and noncontrolling; Openness to whatever emerges with a lack of predetermined constraints on findings. [blank_start]Emergent design flexibility[blank_end]: Openness to adapting inquiry as understanding deepens and/or situations change; avoids getting locked into a rigid design that eliminates responsiveness and pursues new paths of discovery as they emerge. [blank_start]Purposeful sampling[blank_end]: Cases for study are selected because they are information rich and illuminative. Sampling is aimed at insight about phenomena, not empirical generalisation from a sample to a population.
Answer
  • Naturalistic inquiry
  • Emergent design flexibility
  • Purposeful sampling
  • Qualitative data
  • Personal experience and engagement
  • Empathic neutrality and mindfulness
  • Dynamic systems
  • Unique case orientation
  • Inductive analysis & creative synthesis
  • Holistic perspective
  • Context sensitivity
  • Voice, perspectives, and reflexivity

Question 32

Question
Data collection and fieldwork strategies [blank_start]Qualitative data[blank_end]: Observations that yield detailed, thick descriptions; inquiry in depth; interviews that capture direct quotations about personal perspectives and experiences. [blank_start]Personal experience and engagement[blank_end]: Direct contact with and gets close to the people, situation and phenomenon under study; the researchers' personal experiences are an important part of the inquiry and critical to understanding the phenomenon. [blank_start]Empathic neutrality and mindfulness[blank_end]: Seeks vicarious understanding without judgement (neutrality) by showing openness, sensitivity, respect, awareness, and responsiveness. Being fully present. [blank_start]Dynamic systems[blank_end]: Attention to process; assumes change as ongoing whether the focus is on an individual, organisation, community or culture. Mindful of and attentive to system and situation dynamics.
Answer
  • Qualitative data
  • Personal experience and engagement
  • Empathic neutrality and mindfulness
  • Dynamic systems
  • Naturalistic inquiry
  • Emergent design flexibility
  • Purposeful sampling
  • Unique case orientation
  • Inductive analysis & creative synthesis
  • Holistic perspective
  • Context sensitivity
  • Voice, perspective, and reflexivity

Question 33

Question
Analysis strategies [blank_start]Unique case orientation[blank_end]: Assumes that each case is special and unique; the first level of analysis is being true to, respecting, and capturing the details of the individual cases being studied; cross-case analysis follows from and depends on the quality of individual case studies. [blank_start]Inductive analysis & creative synthesis[blank_end]: Immersion in the details and specifics of the data to discover important patterns, themes, and interrelationships; begins by exploring, then confirming, guided by analytical principles rather than rules, ends with a creative synthesis. [blank_start]Holistic perspective[blank_end]: The whole phenomenon under study is understood as a complex system that is more than the sum of its parts; focus on complex interdependencies and system dynamics that cannot meaningfully be reduced to a few discrete variables and linear, causeeffect relationships. [blank_start]Context sensitivity[blank_end]: Places findings in a social, historical, and temporal context; careful about, even dubious of, the possibility or meaningfulness of generalizations across time and space; emphasizes instead careful comparative case analyses and extrapolating patterns for possible transferability and adaptation in new settings. [blank_start]Voice, perspective, and reflexivity[blank_end]: The qualitative analyst owns and is reflective about her or his own voice and perspective; a credible voice conveys authenticity and trustworthiness; complete objectivity being impossible and pure subjectivity undermining credibility, the researcher’s focus becomes balance—understanding and depicting the world authentically in all its complexity while being self-analytical, politically aware, and reflexive in consciousness
Answer
  • Unique case orientation
  • Inductive analysis & creative synthesis
  • Holistic perspective
  • Context sensitivity
  • Voice, perspective, and reflexivity
  • Naturalistic inquiry
  • Emergent design flexibility
  • Purposeful sampling
  • Qualitative data
  • Personal experience and engagement
  • Empathic neutrality and mindfulness
  • Dynamic systems

Question 34

Question
What is Studying real-world situations as they unfold naturally; Nonmanipulative and noncontrolling; Openness to whatever emerges with a lack of predetermined constraints on findings.
Answer
  • Context sensitivity
  • Holistic perspective
  • Naturalistic inquiry
  • Personal experience and engagement

Question 35

Question
What is Openness to adapting inquiry as understanding deepens and/or situations change; avoids getting locked into a rigid design that eliminates responsiveness and pursues new paths of discovery as they emerge.
Answer
  • Emergent design and flexibility
  • Inductive analysis & creativity synthesis
  • Voice, perspective, and reflexivity
  • Dynamic systems

Question 36

Question
What is Cases for study are selected because they are information rich and illuminative. Sampling is aimed at insight about phenomena, not empirical generalisation from a sample to a population.
Answer
  • Qualitative data
  • Holistic perspective
  • Unique case orientation
  • Purposeful sampling

Question 37

Question
What is Observations that yield detailed, thick descriptions; inquiry in depth; interviews that capture direct quotations about personal perspectives and experiences.
Answer
  • Empathic neutrality and midnfulness
  • Purposeful sampling
  • Qualitative data
  • Personal experience and engagement

Question 38

Question
What is Direct contact with and gets close to the people, situation and phenomenon under study; the researchers' personal experiences are an important part of the inquiry and critical to understanding the phenomenon.
Answer
  • Voice, perspective, and reflexivity
  • Personal experience and engagement
  • Context sensitivity
  • Purposeful sampling

Question 39

Question
What is Seeks vicarious understanding without judgement (neutrality) by showing openness, sensitivity, respect, awareness, and responsiveness. Being fully present.
Answer
  • Empathic neutrality and mindfulness
  • Holistic perspective
  • Naturalistic inquiry
  • Inductive analysis & creative synthesis

Question 40

Question
What is Attention to process; assumes change as ongoing whether the focus is on an individual, organisation, community or culture. Mindful of and attentive to system and situation dynamics.
Answer
  • Emergent design flexibility
  • Purposeful sampling
  • Unique case orientation
  • Dynamic systems

Question 41

Question
What is Assumes that each case is special and unique; the first level of analysis is being true to, respecting, and capturing the details of the individual cases being studied; cross-case analysis follows from and depends on the quality of individual case studies.
Answer
  • Holistic perspective
  • Unique case orientation
  • Context sensitivity
  • Qualitative data

Question 42

Question
What is Immersion in the details and specifics of the data to discover important patterns, themes, and interrelationships; begins by exploring, then confirming, guided by analytical principles rather than rules, ends with a creative synthesis.
Answer
  • Qualitative data
  • Voice, perspective, and reflexivity
  • Inductive analysis & creative synthesis
  • Context sensitvity

Question 43

Question
What is The whole phenomenon under study is understood as a complex system that is more than the sum of its parts; focus on complex interdependencies and system dynamics that cannot meaningfully be reduced to a few discrete variables and linear, causeeffect relationships.
Answer
  • Holistic perspective
  • Context sensitivity
  • Naturalistic inquiry
  • Personal experience and engagement

Question 44

Question
What is Places findings in a social, historical, and temporal context; careful about, even dubious of, the possibility or meaningfulness of generalizations across time and space; emphasizes instead careful comparative case analyses and extrapolating patterns for possible transferability and adaptation in new settings.
Answer
  • Purposeful sampling
  • Personal experience and engagement
  • Voice, perspective, and reflexivity
  • Context sensitivity

Question 45

Question
What is The qualitative analyst owns and is reflective about her or his own voice and perspective; a credible voice conveys authenticity and trustworthiness; complete objectivity being impossible and pure subjectivity undermining credibility, the researcher’s focus becomes balance—understanding and depicting the world authentically in all its complexity while being self-analytical, politically aware, and reflexive in consciousness
Answer
  • Voice, perspective, and reflexivity
  • Holistic perspective
  • Unique case orientation
  • Qualitative data

Question 46

Question
Photo elicitation is also called
Answer
  • Photo voice
  • Photo novella
  • Participatory photography
  • Photo diary

Question 47

Question
Social construction of knowledge includes
Answer
  • Constructing meaning through interactions with others
  • The idea or notion that appears to be natural and obvious to people who accept it
  • Are collectively held beliefs
  • Can and do change: groups may actively work to renegotiate meanings associated with them

Question 48

Question
According to social construction
Answer
  • There are multiple, socially constructed realities
  • Researched shaped by the culture, class, gender, life experience etc. of the researcher
  • There is a single, objective reality that exists "out there"
  • Techincal competence of the researcher is all that matters

Question 49

Question
In quantitative research, the researcher is the instrument
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 50

Question
Social constructions are singularly held beliefs?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 51

Question
Do we construct meaning through interactions with others?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 52

Question
It is possible for social constructions to change.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 53

Question
In qualitative research the researcher is the [blank_start]instrument[blank_end].
Answer
  • instrument
  • experiment
  • participant
  • social construct

Question 54

Question
Reflexivity is the construction of meaning through interactions with others.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 55

Question
Reflexivity is the critical self-evaluation of researcher's positionality.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 56

Question
Reflexivity understands that a researchers positionality [blank_start]may[blank_end] affect the research process and outcome.
Answer
  • may
  • will
  • won't

Question 57

Question
[blank_start]Reflexivity[blank_end] is the process of a continual internal dialogue and critical self-evaluation of researcher's positionality as well as active acknowledgement and explicit recognition that this problem may affect the research process and outcome.
Answer
  • Reflexivity

Question 58

Question
Researcher positioning can include which of the following:
Answer
  • Gender, race and affiliation
  • Age
  • Sexual orientation
  • Immigration status
  • Personal experiences
  • Linguistic tradtion
  • Beliefs and biases
  • Preferences
  • Theoretical, political and ideological stances
  • Emotional responses to participant

Question 59

Question
Things that are relevant to a researchers positioning for reflexivity is not dependent on the context
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 60

Question
A researcher's [blank_start]position[blank_end] is relevant because it can affect access to the 'field', it may shape the nature of the researcher-participant relationship, it may affect the way in which we construct the world, use language, pose questions, choose our frameworks, and how we make meaning of the information we gather.
Answer
  • position

Question 61

Question
The position of the researcher may shape the nature of the researcher-participant relationship. However, this will not affect the information that participants are willing to share.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 62

Question
The position of the researcher may affect the way they construct the world which will affect how meaning is made from gathered information.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 63

Question
Reflexivity can be achieved by
Answer
  • Having multiple researchers
  • Being transparent with participants
  • Keeping a journal
  • Restricting access to participants
  • Conducting double-blind studies
  • Randomly assigning participants to conditions

Question 64

Question
Keeping a journal will help with reflexivity
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 65

Question
What should be recorded in a journal to assist with reflexivity?
Answer
  • Experiences and feelings
  • Decisions and how they were made
  • Milage
  • Equipment used
  • The number of cups of tea consumed

Question 66

Question
For reflexivity purposes, once a journal entry has been written it should not be reviewed.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 67

Question
[blank_start]Transparent positioning[blank_end] is about being open and clear about a researcher's position.
Answer
  • Transparent positioning

Question 68

Question
[blank_start]2.[blank_end] Devising an initial theme for taking pictures [blank_start]4.[blank_end] Selecting photographs for discussion [blank_start]1.[blank_end] Photovoice training [blank_start]6.[blank_end] Codifying issues, themes, theories [blank_start]5.[blank_end] Contextualising and storytelling [blank_start]3.[blank_end] Taking pictures
Answer
  • 2.
  • 4.
  • 1.
  • 6.
  • 5.
  • 3.

Question 69

Question
Photo elicitation studies should be directed, by providing guidance on what and how particiaptns should take photos.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 70

Question
Photo elicitation is...
Answer
  • a process
  • a single step
  • not a good way to conduct research
  • quantitative

Question 71

Question
[blank_start]Photo elicitation[blank_end] provides [blank_start]participants[blank_end] the opportunity to tell tales about their [blank_start]everyday[blank_end] experience
Answer
  • Photo elicitation
  • Social construction
  • participants
  • subjects
  • everyday
  • objective

Question 72

Question
Photo elicitation studies allow access to what some researchers conceptualise as the 'unknown unknowns'. Things that the researcher may not even be aware of when conducting a study.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 73

Question
What are some of the unknown unknowns mentioned in the 'Picture this' study on sexuality and schooling conducted by Lousia Allen?
Answer
  • Learning about sexuality from graffiti
  • Learning about sexuality from sports
  • The 5cm rule
  • Unofficial spaces
  • Learning about sexuality from peers

Question 74

Question
Reasons given for why photo elicitation studies in schools are unconventional from the 'Picture this' sexualities and schooling study by Lousia Allen include:
Answer
  • Schools are risk-averse
  • Teenagers are already self-centered, giving them cameras will only inflate their sense of self importance.
  • Cameras incite anxieties around issues of privacy and appropriate use
  • Teenagers don't have the maturity to take relevant photos

Question 75

Question
Participants are unlikely to take staged or premeditated photos in a photo elicitation study, they are more likely to take opportunistic photos. Answer in reference to the 'Picture this' sexuality and schooling study by Louisa Allen.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 76

Question
Some participants in the 'Picture this' sexuality and schooling study by Louisa Allen were initially uncertain about what photos to capture. This may have been attributable to the way sexuality is both 'everywhere and nowhere' at school.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 77

Question
Researchers are often disappointed on first viewing participant images as they appear mundane and uninteresting.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 78

Question
The following can be/are socially constructed:
Answer
  • Colours
  • Language
  • Food
  • Gestures
  • People

Question 79

Question
Stereotypes are not forms of social construction.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 80

Question
[blank_start]social movements[blank_end] such as [blank_start]civil rights and feminism[blank_end] can in part be seen as [blank_start]collective[blank_end] efforts to change [blank_start]socially constructed ideas[blank_end] about the world.
Answer
  • social movements
  • civil rights and feminism
  • collective
  • socially constructed ideas

Question 81

Question
Examples of social constructions: [blank_start]Language[blank_end]: The word cat, it doesn't look like a cat, but we as a society have decided it represents sounds that make up the word cat. [blank_start]Colours[blank_end]: Pink is for girls, blue is for boys. [blank_start]Food[blank_end]: Eating bacon and eggs for breakfast is western, in Korea vegetable soup for breakfast. Fortune cookies are not a Chinese invention but Japanese, in America Chinese food is served with fortune cookies. [blank_start]Gestures[blank_end]: Thumbs up means good or well done in western society. In Iraq, it means screw you. Discussion around Michelle and Barak Obama fist bumping and what it means, apparaently it can have links to terrorism? [blank_start]People[blank_end]: Women love shopping. American Indians are closer to nature.
Answer
  • Language
  • Colours
  • Food
  • Gestures
  • People

Question 82

Question
A [blank_start]symbol[blank_end] is a thing that stands in for another thing e.g. the USA Flag represents the United States and it's people.
Answer
  • symbol

Question 83

Question
[blank_start]Social constructions[blank_end] are collectively held beliefs where a culture agrees on a meaning. They can be difficult to change. [blank_start]Stereotypes[blank_end] are forms of social constructions.
Answer
  • Social constructions
  • Stereotypes

Question 84

Question
There is an assumption among researchers that bias or skewedness in a research study is undesireable.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 85

Question
[blank_start]preconceptions[blank_end] are not the same as [blank_start]bias[blank_end], unless the researcher fails to mention them. Different researchers will approach a study from different [blank_start]positions[blank_end] or perspectives. This might lead to different, although equally [blank_start]valid[blank_end], [blank_start]understandings[blank_end] of a particular situation under study. While some may see these different ways of [blank_start]knowing[blank_end] as a [blank_start]reliability[blank_end] problem, others feel that these different ways of seeing provide a [blank_start]richer[blank_end], more developed understanding of [blank_start]complex[blank_end] phenomena. Understanding something about the position, perspective, beliefs and [blank_start]values[blank_end] of the researcher is an issue in all [blank_start]research[blank_end], but particulary in [blank_start]qualitative[blank_end] research where the researcher is often constructed as the [blank_start]human research instrument[blank_end].
Answer
  • preconceptions
  • bias
  • positions
  • valid
  • understandings
  • knowing
  • reliability
  • richer
  • complex
  • values
  • research
  • qualitative
  • quantitative
  • human research instrument

Question 86

Question
One way to foster reflexivity and reflexive research design [blank_start]is to[blank_end] report research perspectives, positions, values and beliefs in manuscripts and other publications. Many believe this is [blank_start]valuable[blank_end] and [blank_start]essential[blank_end] to briefly report in manuscripts, as best as possible, how one's preconceptions, beliefs, values, assumptions and position may have come into play during the research process.
Answer
  • is to
  • is not to
  • valuable
  • a waste of time
  • essential
  • unnecessary

Question 87

Question
Fostering reflexivity and good reflexive design includes only one researcher.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 88

Question
A journal is a good way to foster reflexivity and encourage good reflexive research design.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 89

Question
We construct meaning through interactions with others when
Answer
  • face to face
  • interacting with media
  • Both face to face and interacting with the media

Question 90

Question
[blank_start]Collectively[blank_end] held beliefs are an idea or notion that appears to be [blank_start]natural and obvious[blank_end] to people who [blank_start]accept[blank_end] it (war, beneficiaries, beauty). However, if they can be [blank_start]constructed[blank_end], they can be [blank_start]deconstructed[blank_end] (i.e. the term queer is now a matter of pride).
Answer
  • Collectively
  • Individually
  • natural and obvious
  • unnatural and illogical
  • accept
  • reject
  • constructed
  • deconstructed

Question 91

Question
[blank_start]Positivist/experimental/quantitative[blank_end] research does tend to take a view that there is a single objective reality that exists “out there”. Technical competence of the researcher is all that matters. [blank_start]Social construction/critical psychology[blank_end]: There are multiple socially constructed realities. I.e. 9/11 world trade centre, compared to a battery factory in India exploded where 5000 people died. Or the Alleppey Junta regime (1973). Research shaped by culture, class, gender, life experience of the researcher.
Answer
  • Positivist/experimental/quantitative
  • Social construction/critical psychology
  • Social construction/critical psychology
  • Positivist/experimental/quantitative

Question 92

Question
In qualitative research, the researcher is the [blank_start]instrument[blank_end]. [blank_start]Reflexivity[blank_end] the process of a continual internal dialogue and critical self-evaluation of the researcher’s positionality. Position in the field: Insiders or Outsiders. [blank_start]Insiders[blank_end] are generally favoured and don't have to make participants at ease. i.e. for tightly knit or religious communities. [blank_start]Outsiders[blank_end] can be good as they may have an objective view but have to get participants to feel at ease.
Answer
  • instrument
  • participant
  • Reflexivity
  • Social construction
  • Insiders
  • Outsiders
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