BSc Y2 Cognitive Psychology

Francesca Barrett
Quiz by Francesca Barrett, updated more than 1 year ago
Francesca Barrett
Created by Francesca Barrett over 2 years ago
9
0

Description

BSc Y2 Cognitive Psychology Key Definitions

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Cognitive psychology studies [blank_start]the way humans process information[blank_end], including internal processes such as [blank_start]perception, attention[blank_end], [blank_start]language and memory.[blank_end]
Answer
  • the way humans process information
  • perception, attention
  • language and memory.

Question 2

Question
The information-processing approach is serial and bottom up.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 3

Question
Bottom up is when processing is determined by the [blank_start]environmental stimuli[blank_end] rather than [blank_start]knowledge or expectations.[blank_end]
Answer
  • environmental stimuli
  • knowledge or expectations.

Question 4

Question
[blank_start]Welford (1977)[blank_end] - reaction time shortens from [blank_start]infancy to late 20's[blank_end], increases slowly until the [blank_start]50's[blank_end] and then [blank_start]increases[blank_end] rapidly.
Answer
  • Welford (1977)
  • infancy to late 20's
  • 50's
  • increases

Question 5

Question
[blank_start]Noble et al (1964)[blank_end] - in almost every age-group, [blank_start]males[blank_end] tend to respond faster than [blank_start]females[blank_end]
Answer
  • Noble et al (1964)
  • males
  • females

Question 6

Question
How many words to Adults know?
Answer
  • 70,000
  • 75,000
  • 7,000

Question 7

Question
Morphemes are [blank_start]linguistic units of meaning[blank_end] that cannot be divided into [blank_start]smaller meaningful parts.[blank_end]
Answer
  • linguistic units of meaning
  • smaller meaningful parts.

Question 8

Question
Syntax is the [blank_start]grammar[blank_end] of a language, the [blank_start]rules[blank_end] that we use to produce coherent sentences
Answer
  • grammar
  • rules

Question 9

Question
Phonemic Restoration Effect [blank_start](Warren & Warren, 1970)[blank_end] if a phoneme is masked they [blank_start]infer it using the context[blank_end] of the sentence.
Answer
  • (Warren & Warren, 1970)
  • infer it using the context

Question 10

Question
[blank_start]Uniqueness point[blank_end] - the point at which a listener can recognise the word without hearing the finished word.
Answer
  • Uniqueness point

Question 11

Question
Cohort Model [blank_start](Marslen-Wilson & Tyler, 1980)[blank_end] - when you hear a word, all the words with the first letters [blank_start]activate[blank_end] and then [blank_start]deactivate[blank_end] as you follow the sequential letters.
Answer
  • (Marslen-Wilson & Tyler, 1980)
  • activate
  • deactivate

Question 12

Question
[blank_start]Reicher (1969)[blank_end] - word superiority effect: single letters are [blank_start]easier detected[blank_end] in the context of a real word.
Answer
  • Reicher (1969)
  • easier detected

Question 13

Question
Interactive Activation Model [blank_start](McClelland & Rumelhart, 1981)[blank_end] - activation cascades from [blank_start]level to level[blank_end] over [blank_start]all available connections[blank_end] in the network.
Answer
  • (McClelland & Rumelhart, 1981)
  • level to level
  • all available connections

Question 14

Question
semantic priming - exposure to [blank_start]meaningful information[blank_end] facilitates processing of [blank_start]semantically related information[blank_end]
Answer
  • meaningful information
  • semantically related information

Question 15

Question
the stages of long-term memory are; [blank_start]encoding[blank_end], [blank_start]storage[blank_end] and [blank_start]retrieval[blank_end].
Answer
  • encoding
  • storage
  • retrieval

Question 16

Question
fMRI has good [blank_start]spatial resolution[blank_end] and poor [blank_start]temporal resolution[blank_end]
Answer
  • spatial resolution
  • temporal resolution

Question 17

Question
EEG has [blank_start]poor[blank_end] spatial resolution and [blank_start]good[blank_end] temporal resolution
Answer
  • poor
  • good

Question 18

Question
Kapur et al [blank_start](1994)[blank_end] a deep encoding task (living/non-living) facilitated [blank_start]better recognition memory (75%)[blank_end] than a shallow encoding task [blank_start](57%)[blank_end]
Answer
  • (1994)
  • better recognition memory (75%)
  • (57%)

Question 19

Question
[blank_start]basal ganglia[blank_end] is more active for procedural task [blank_start]vs direct task[blank_end], whereas [blank_start]medial temporal lobe[blank_end] is more active for [blank_start]direct task vs[blank_end] the procedural task
Answer
  • basal ganglia
  • vs direct task
  • medial temporal lobe
  • direct task vs

Question 20

Question
[blank_start]episodic memory[blank_end] = the ability to extremely rapidly form durable conscious memories of personal experiences.
Answer
  • episodic memory

Question 21

Question
[blank_start]chromesthesia[blank_end] - hypothetical brain/mind ability or capacity acquired by humans through evolution, that allows them to be constantly aware of the past and the future.
Answer
  • chromesthesia

Question 22

Question
[blank_start]Wheeler et al[blank_end] (2000) - successfully remembering visual memories activates the visual association cortex, but remembering auditory memories activates the auditory cortex.
Answer
  • Wheeler et al

Question 23

Question
the [blank_start]hippocampus[blank_end] is thought to bind more low-level features and item memories into highly differentiated unique [blank_start]episodic memories[blank_end]
Answer
  • hippocampus
  • episodic memories

Question 24

Question
[blank_start]Garry and Loftus (1996)[blank_end] - imagining different events [blank_start]increased[blank_end] participants' confidence that they had occurred.
Answer
  • Garry and Loftus (1996)
  • increased

Question 25

Question
[blank_start]Schachter and Colleagues (2011)[blank_end] - remembering true memories is often associated with more [blank_start]perceptual processing[blank_end] than false memories.
Answer
  • Schachter and Colleagues (2011)
  • perceptual processing

Question 26

Question
Long running debate over whether vision is innate ([blank_start]Descartes[blank_end]) or learned ([blank_start]Berkeley[blank_end])
Answer
  • Descartes
  • Berkeley

Question 27

Question
Gibson's (1966) theory of [blank_start]direct perception[blank_end] - visual experience stems from [blank_start]perceiving wholistic properties[blank_end] that cannot be inferred from looking at the component parts.
Answer
  • direct perception
  • perceiving wholistic properties

Question 28

Question
What are the assumptions of the Constructivist Approach of vision (U. Neisser, 1928-2012)
Answer
  • cognition consists of an orderly series of stages of mental events that actively reconstruct the retinal input
  • the detection of perceptual invariants such as optic flow and texture relies on complex mental processes
  • Cognition can occur randomly, it does not have to follow a set order of stages

Question 29

Question
[blank_start]Newton (1672)[blank_end] - discovered that light can be split into many colours. Different colours arise from different parts of the [blank_start]electromagnetic spectrum.[blank_end]
Answer
  • Newton (1672)
  • electromagnetic spectrum.

Question 30

Question
the human retina has over [blank_start]7 million cones[blank_end], and [blank_start]125 million[blank_end] rods.
Answer
  • 7 million cones
  • 125 million

Question 31

Question
Gestalt psychologists state that the process of grouping provides a way of [blank_start]combining visual elements[blank_end] into [blank_start]larger, more meaningful units.[blank_end]
Answer
  • combining visual elements
  • larger, more meaningful units.

Question 32

Question
Lissauer (1890) - [blank_start]apperceptive agnosia[blank_end] is when patients are unable to properly assemble the individual attributes of objects.
Answer
  • apperceptive agnosia

Question 33

Question
[blank_start]Plant et al (2015)[blank_end] - patient AS could use shape information to pick up objects but was unable to recognise them.
Answer
  • Plant et al (2015)

Question 34

Question
Lissauer (1890) - [blank_start]associative agnosia[blank_end] is when patients can properly form object structure; but are unable to access stored knowledge about this.
Answer
  • associative agnosia

Question 35

Question
Lhermitte & Beauvois (1973) - [blank_start]optic aphasia[blank_end] is when patients can apprehend objects structure and show semantic knowledge through mine and use, but they [blank_start]cannot name the object[blank_end]
Answer
  • optic aphasia
  • cannot name the object

Question 36

Question
[blank_start]Selfridge (1959)[blank_end] to recognise an object we look [blank_start]for critical features[blank_end] that are unique to that object
Answer
  • Selfridge (1959)
  • for critical features

Question 37

Question
[blank_start]Marr and Nishihara (1978)[blank_end] - objects are recognised through the various lengths and arrangements of the generalised cones, which is made from its [blank_start]main axis[blank_end] information.
Answer
  • Marr and Nishihara (1978)
  • main axis

Question 38

Question
Geon Theory [blank_start](Biederman, 1987)[blank_end] - there are other object properties that remain invariant across viewpoints; [blank_start]cylinders, spheres[blank_end] and other basic shapes.
Answer
  • (Biederman, 1987)
  • cylinders, spheres

Question 39

Question
neuropsychological evidence suggests that object recognition occurs at [blank_start]two[blank_end] distinct stages; [blank_start]perceptual and semantic[blank_end]
Answer
  • two
  • perceptual and semantic

Question 40

Question
[blank_start]Yin (1969)[blank_end] - the face inversion effect occurs because the inversion of a face disrupts its familiar configure cues while leaving the identities of its features untouched.
Answer
  • Yin (1969)

Question 41

Question
Ishai, Alumit et al (1999) - [blank_start]fusiform gyrus[blank_end] seems to 'light up' when faces are viewed.
Answer
  • fusiform gyrus

Question 42

Question
pure prosopagnosia - patients are [blank_start]poor[blank_end] at recognising faces but relatively [blank_start]normal[blank_end] at recognising objects. Shown in Patient R.C. [blank_start](Wilkinson et al, 2009).[blank_end]
Answer
  • poor
  • normal
  • (Wilkinson et al, 2009).

Question 43

Question
[blank_start]pure object agnosia[blank_end] - patients are poor at recognising objects but relatively normal at recognising faces. Shown in Patient C.K. [blank_start](Moscovitch et al, 1999)[blank_end]
Answer
  • pure object agnosia
  • (Moscovitch et al, 1999)

Question 44

Question
[blank_start]Diamond and Carey (1986)[blank_end] - the inversion effect found for human faces can also be found in animals, provided that the subject are [blank_start]experts[blank_end] at recognising that kind of animal
Answer
  • Diamond and Carey (1986)
  • experts

Question 45

Question
[blank_start]Gauthier et al (1999)[blank_end] - decisions about objects for which we have developed expertise also activate the [blank_start]fusiform gyrus[blank_end] which was thought to be [blank_start]specialised for faces.[blank_end]
Answer
  • Gauthier et al (1999)
  • fusiform gyrus
  • specialised for faces.

Question 46

Question
[blank_start]William James (1890)[blank_end] - 'everyone knows what attention is', we all have attention and are basically aware of what it is.
Answer
  • William James (1890)

Question 47

Question
[blank_start]harold Pashler (1998)[blank_end] - 'no-one knows what attention is'. It is difficult to define and [blank_start]subjective.[blank_end]
Answer
  • harold Pashler (1998)
  • subjective.

Question 48

Question
[blank_start]posner (1978)[blank_end] - spotlight theory of attention. attention can only focus on [blank_start]one region[blank_end] at a time. Attentional shifts occur either voluntary or involuntary.
Answer
  • posner (1978)
  • one region

Question 49

Question
Eriksen & St James (1986) - zoom-lens theory states that [blank_start]smaller attentional aperture[blank_end] allows us to pick out greater detail whereas a [blank_start]wider aperture[blank_end] allows more information to be assimilated at a [blank_start]lower spatial resolution.[blank_end]
Answer
  • smaller attentional aperture
  • wider aperture
  • lower spatial resolution.

Question 50

Question
[blank_start]pre-attention[blank_end]; some types of information can be processed without [blank_start]focal attention[blank_end].
Answer
  • pre-attention
  • focal attention

Question 51

Question
[blank_start]morris, ohman & dolan[blank_end] (1988) - brain areas associated with fear and happiness are [blank_start]strongly activated[blank_end] when faces showing such emotion are presented [blank_start]sub-threshold[blank_end]
Answer
  • morris, ohman & dolan
  • strongly activated
  • sub-threshold
Show full summary Hide full summary

Similar

Psychology A1
Ellie Hughes
Cognitive Psychology - Capacity and encoding
T W
Memory Key words
Sammy :P
History of Psychology
mia.rigby
Biological Psychology - Stress
Gurdev Manchanda
Psychology | Unit 4 | Addiction - Explanations
showmestarlight
Psychology subject map
Jake Pickup
Bowlby's Theory of Attachment
Jessica Phillips
The Biological Approach to Psychology
Gabby Wood
Chapter 5: Short-term and Working Memory
krupa8711
Psychology and the MCAT
Sarah Egan