Cell Biology

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All the parts of cell biology (National 5 SQA)

Resource summary

Slide 1

    Cell Biology
    Basic Cell structure.Ultrastructure of cells.Cell Functions.Cell Sizes.Cell membrane structure.Movement of substances (Including diffusion, Osmosis and Active Transport).Chromosomes and cells.Mitosis.Cell culture.Aseptic Techniques.Chromosomes, Genes and DNA.DNA structure.Extracting DNA.DNA and Proteins.Production of Proteins.
    Proteins.Enzymes.Genetic Transfer.Genetic Engineering.Process of Photosynthesis.Stage 1.Stage 2.Sugar Uses.Limiting Factors.Cellular respiration.Release and use of energy.Aerobic Respiration.Measuring Respiration.Fermentation.Locations.

Slide 2

    Ultrastructure of an animal cell
    In addition to the nucleus, cell membrane and cytoplasm, other structures can be used using the electron microscope.The illustration shows the ultrastructure of an animal cell as revealed by an electron microscope. The mitochondria is the site of aerobic respiration and the ribosomes are where proteins are synthesized.Cells can be thought of as mini factories with jobs being carried out in specialised areas. Each structure is designed in a way that suits its function. Specific organelles carry out their function to ensure the survival of the cell.You do not need to know the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes or Golgi. The plasma cell membrane is simply the cell membrane. The cytoplasm is the light yellow colour inside the cell.
    Caption: : Animal Cell Ultrastructure

Slide 3

    Ultrastructure of a plant cell
    The structures normally visible in a plant under the light microscope are: the nucleus, cell membrane, cytoplasm, cell wall, sap vacuole and chloroplasts. Using an electron microscope allows you to see the chloroplast in more detail. Ribosomes and Mitochondria are also visible.The illustration shows the organelles present in a plant cell.You do not need to know the nuclear envelope, Nucleolus, Chromatin, Endoplasmic Reticulum or Golgi Bodies.
    Caption: : Plant Cell Ultrastructure.

Slide 4

    Caption: : Yeast (Fungal) Cell Ultrastructure
    Ultrastructure of a fungal cell
    Yeast is an example of a unicellular fungus. The structure to a yeast cell is similar to an animal cell. It has a nucleus, cell membrane and cytoplasm, The only difference between the animal and yeast cell is the presence of a vacuole and cell wall in the yeast cell. The cell walls in plant cells and yeast cells have a different composition. There are a variety of different types of yeast. Different strains of yeast are used in the baking and brewing industries.The illustration shows the organelles present in a yeast cell.You do not need to know the vacuole membrane or the lipids.

Slide 5

    Ultrastructure of a bacterial cell
    There are many different types of bacteria. Like the other cell types the bacterial cell has a cell membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm and ribosomes.The most obvious difference between a bacterial cell and the other types of cells is the lack of nucleus. The bacterial cell contains DNA as well as circular plasmids that also contain DNA. The cell wall in the bacterial cell is again different from the plant and fungal cells. Although all three have a cell wall the chemical composition is different. They also have a Bacterial Flagellum to help them move.The illustration shows the structures present in a typical bacterial cell.You do not need to know the Pili. The nucleoid is the DNA.

Slide 6

    Cell functions
    Nucleus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Mitochondria Ribosome Cell Wall Sap Vacuole Chloroplast Plamid
    Contains genetic information and controls all cell activities. Selectively permeable; Controls what enters and leaves the cell. Site of chemical reactions. Site of aerobic respiration (energy production). Site of protein synthesis. Freely permeable; Involved in support of the cell. Helps keep the shape of the cell. Site of photosynthesis. Circular piece of DNA

Slide 7

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