DNA Synthesis, Transcription, and Translation

Flashcards by badern, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by badern over 5 years ago


Made for Rockhurst University course, General Biology I.

Resource summary

Question Answer
molecular genetics the use of DNA as a code for proteins
DNA deoxyribose nucleic acid; a double helix structure composed of nucleotides that store genetic information
central dogma states that genetic information can be transferred from DNA to RNA to proteins Central_Dogma.png (image/png)
transcription genetic information in a molecule of DNA is used as a template to generate a molecule of RNA; takes place in the nucleus
translation a molecule of RNA is used as code for the sequence of amino acids in a protein; takes place on ribosomes in the cytoplasm
nucleotides DNA and RNA subunits that consist of a 5-carbon sugar, a base, and one or more phosphate groups; adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine (for DNA); same for RNA, except uracil is used instead of thymine
purines double ring structures; G and A
pyrimidines single ring structures; C, U, and T
T (nucleotide pairs with...) A
G (nucleotide pairs with...) C
U (nucleotide pairs with...) A
peptide bonds covalent bonds between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
primary structure the order of amino acids in translation (peptide bonds)
secondary structure hydrogen bonds between amino and carboxyl groups; alpha helices and beta sheets
tertiary and quarternary structure interactions between side chains and carboxyl/R groups; includes ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic interactions; produces overall shape and function of the protein
promoter sequence on DNA that starts transcription
terminator sequence on DNA that ends transcription
RNA polymerase enzyme that splits DNA in transcription and synthesizes the mRNA strand
Direction RNA polymerase reads DNA in transcription 3' to 5'
Direction mRNA is synthesized in transcription 5' to 3'
location of transcription nucleus
template strand strand of DNA the RNA polymerase codes
nontemplate strand strand of DNA that RNA polymerase does not code
hydrogen bonds bond between H and N, O, or F protein_bonds2.jpg (image/jpg)
hydrophobic interactions bonds usually between C and H; water-fearing interactions protein_bonds2.jpg (image/jpg)
ionic bonds electron exchange between atoms; negative and positive charges present protein_bonds2.jpg (image/jpg)
start codon three nucleotides that start translation; AUG (Met)
stop codon three nucleotide sequence that stops translation
Direction mRNA is read by the ribosome in translation 5' to 3'
polypeptide chain bonded amino acids produced at the ribosome that later forms the protein
tRNA landing and exiting sites in the ribsome E (exit), P (peptidyl), A (aminoacyl; acceptor)
missense point mutation of a single nucleotide that changes the amino acid
Nonsense point mutation that changes one nucleotide which changes the amino acid to a stop codon (i.e., causes early termination)
silent point mutation that changes one nucelotide but does not change the amino acid
insertion frameshift mutation that adds an extra nucleotide and affects each subsequent amino acid
deletion frameshift mutation that deletes a nucleotide and affects subsequent amino acids
DNA replication semi-conservative (each new DNA molecule has one strand from the original DNA molecule) synthesis of a DNA molecule into two identical DNA molecules
direction DNA polymerase reads DNA strands in DNA synthesis 3' to 5'
direction DNA is synthesized from DNA polymerase in DNA synthesis 5' to 3'
origin location where DNA synthesis begins
helicase unwinds the DNA in DNA synthesis
topoisomerase relieves stress on the DNA strands as helicase breaks the strands apart
primase enzyme that make primers
ligase connects Okazaki fragments on the laggin strand
Okazaki fragments fragments of DNA on the lagging strand
location of DNA synthesis nucleus
location of translation cytoplasm (on ribosomes)
3' end of DNA has a hydroxyl group linked to it
5' end of DNA has a phosphate group linked to it
DNA vs. RNA (differences between them) DNA: double strand nucleus bound very big stable RNA: single strand free very small unstable
DNA polymerase I replaces RNA primers with DNA nucleotides
DNA polymerase III synthesizes DNA on the leading strand
primers RNA that allows DNA polymerase I to attach and synthesize DNA on the lagging strand
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