Coastal Environments- Landforms & Defences

Lucy Monger
Flashcards by Lucy Monger, updated more than 1 year ago
Lucy Monger
Created by Lucy Monger over 6 years ago
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Description

A Level Geography AS (Coasts) Flashcards on Coastal Environments- Landforms & Defences, created by Lucy Monger on 11/26/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Constructive Waves -Long Waves -Strong Swash -Weak Backwash
Destructive Waves -Result of stormy activity -Waves break from a considerable height -Strong swash -Strong backwash
Attrition Rocks and pebbles collide reducing the size of the material and smooths edges
Hydraulic Pressure -Lack of beach materials causes cliffs to take force of the waves breaking -Force air into the joints this compression causes rocks to loosen
Abrasion/Corrasion High energy allows waves to carry sediment and hurl it against the cliff face
Slumping Sub-aerial processes attack the cliff top and is when the weak rocks (clay/chalk) become saturated the weight
Promontory Land Highland area jutting out to sea (Headland)
How is a stack formed? -High wave energy creates a promontory piece of land -Cave/Arch -Weight causes headland to fall leaving a solitary piece of rock
Swash-aligned Beaches -Waves approach parallel to the beach and the swash and backwash move sediment up sand down the beach -Storms can result in offshore bars
Drift-aligned Beaches -Waves approach the coast at an angle -Long-shore drift -Groynes can help but cut off supply further down
Tombolo Deposition of sediment joining the mainland to an island
Spits Depositional feature -Wave direction causes a bending (finger like) structure
SMP Shoreline Management Plan
ICZM Integrated Coastal Zoning Management
Hard Engineering Man-made structures put to prevent erosion to the coastline -Sea wall/Groynes/Rock Bund/Gabions/Revetments/Offshore bars
Managed Retreat -Abandoning existing defences and allow flooding -Defences implemented further in land
Soft Engineering Work with natural processes to preserve the coastline -Replenishment/Reprofiling
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