A2 Biology-Photosynthesis and Respiration

Flashcards by elizabethc2114, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by elizabethc2114 over 6 years ago


A Levels Biology Flashcards on A2 Biology-Photosynthesis and Respiration, created by elizabethc2114 on 11/27/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Write a simple equation to show how ATP is synthesised from ADP ADP+Pi= ATP
Which properties of ATP make it a suitable source of energy in biological processes? -Soluble -An immediate source of energy/one step reaction -Energy is released in small, suitable amounts
Why is it necessary for humans to synthesise such large amounts of ATP? -Used in active transport -Only releases a small amount -Can't be stored
Where does glycolysis take place? Cytoplasm
Where does the link reaction take place? Matrix
Where does the Krebs cycle take place? Matrix
Where does oxidative phosphorylation take place? Cristae of the mitochondria
What substances would there be a net movement into the mitochondrion? -Pyruvate -Oxygen -Reduced NAD
Why is it an advantage the the mitochondria in muscles contain many cristae? -Increase surface area -Provides ATP for muscle contractions
In what stage is a 6 carbon compound broken down into two 3 carbon compounds? What are the compounds? Stage= Glycolysis 6C= Glucose 3C= Pyruvate
What is the stage where a 5 carbon compound is combined with a 1 carbon compound? What are the compounds? Stage= light independent reaction of photosynthesis 5C compound= RuBP 1C compound= Carbon dioxide
What is the stage where 3 carbon compounds are combined to form a 6 carbon compound? What are the compounds? -Stage= light independent reaction of photosynthesis -3C compound= TP (triose phosphate) -6C compound= glucose
What substance combines with carbon dioxide in a chloroplast? RuBP (Ribulose biphosphate)
In anaerobic respiration, what is the net yield of ATP molecules per molecule glucose? 2
How is NAD regenerated in anaerobic respiration in yeast cells? Pyruvate accepts hydrogen ions and turns it into ethanol
When sufficient oxygen is available, pyruvate is fully broken down. What substances are formed from the pyruvate? -ATP -Water
Why do muscles become fatigued when insufficient oxygen is available? -Lactate/lactic acid builds up in the muscles -Lowers the pH
What is an advantage of the lactate being oxidised in the muscles? -Immediate ATP supply
Why is ATP useful in many biological processes? -Releases energy in small, manageable amounts -Immediate energy source -Phosphorylates -Lowers activation energy -Can be reformed
Why is it important to produce ATP during respiration in addition to during photosynthesis? -Photosynthesis doesn't take place in the dark -ATP can't be stored -Plants use more ATP than produced in photosynthesis -Active transport -Synthesise DNA, chlorophyll and proteins
In which steps is carbon dioxide produced? -Link reaction -Krebs cycle
If a pond freezes over during the winter, goldfish can remain alive in the water under the ice. Explain why they use the carbohydrate stores in their bodies much faster in these conditions. -They respire anaerobically -Less efficient
What is the main difference between the production of ATP in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis? In respiration it is a chemical process whereas in photosynthesis light is used
Under anaerobic conditions, the oxidised form of NAD is regenerated. Explain why this is essential. -Allows glycolysis/production of ATP to continue
What happens to the energy which is not transferred to ATP? It is lost as heat
Explain why ATP is better than glucose as an immediate energy source for cell metabolism. -Energy is released in small amounts -released in a single reaction
Describe how reduced NADP is involved in the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis -Reduces GP (glycerate-3-phosphate) to TP (triose phosphate)
ATP is sometimes described as an immediate source of energy. Explain why. It is a one step reaction
Plants produce ATP in the light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis. Explain why plants cannot use this as their only source of ATP. -More ATP is needed than the amount produced in photosynthesis -Photosynthesis doesn't occur in the dark
During glycolysis, NAD is reduced. Explain what happens to this reduced NAD when the cell is respiring anaerobically. -Converted back to NAD -Pyruvate is reduced by adding Hydrogen ions
Show full summary Hide full summary


GCSE AQA Biology 1 Quiz
Lilac Potato
Biology- Genes, Chromosomes and DNA
Laura Perry
Using GoConqr to study science
Sarah Egan
Biology- Genes and Variation
Laura Perry
Biology AQA 3.1.3 Cells
Biology AQA 3.1.3 Osmosis and Diffusion
Enzymes and Respiration
I Turner
GCSE AQA Biology - Unit 2
James Jolliffe
Biology AQA 3.2.5 Mitosis
Cells and the Immune System
Eleanor H
GCSE Biology AQA