topic 25 - selection of participants

Charlotte Hewson
Flashcards by Charlotte Hewson, updated more than 1 year ago
Charlotte Hewson
Created by Charlotte Hewson almost 6 years ago


A-Level Psychology A2 (RESEARCH METHODS) Flashcards on topic 25 - selection of participants, created by Charlotte Hewson on 04/22/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
what are the three sample types? -opportunity -volunteer -random
what is as opportunity sample? produced by selecting people who are most easily available at the time e.g. stopping people in the street
what is a volunteer sample? a sample of participants produced by asking for volunteers e.g. putting an advert in the newspaper or noticeboard
what is a random sample? produced using a random technique where everyone in their target population has an equal chance of being selected e.g. drawing participants from a hat
what is a strength of an opportunity sample? its the easiest method
why is it easier? you use who is closest to you so it takes less time
what is a limitation of using an opportunity sample? inevitably bias and lacks representativeness
why is it bias? sample is drawn from a small part of the population e.g. students from one school don't represent the countries school population
what is a strength of a volunteer sample? can give access to a variety of participants
give an example of this? people who read a newspaper can be a wider sample that stopping people in a street
what is a limitation of the volunteer sample? participants may be more highly motivated or have extra time on their hands
what is this known as? volunteer bias
what does this mean? participants may be more willing thus more susceptible to experimenter bias
what is a strength of a random sample? unbiased
why is it unbiased? all members of the target population have an equal chance of selection
what is a limitation of random sampling? it takes more time and effort than other sampling methods
why? you need to obtain a list of all the members in the target population, select your sample and then contact them
what is a target population? the group of people the researcher is interested in
what is sampling? -the process of taking a sample -sampling methods aim to produce a representative selection of the target population
what happens if the sample isn't representative? the study then lacks ecological validity
what are stratified quota samples? groups of participants are selected according to their frequency in the population
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