Psychological Therapies

smita089
Flashcards by smita089, updated more than 1 year ago
smita089
Created by smita089 about 8 years ago
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Psychology (Abnormality) Flashcards on Psychological Therapies, created by smita089 on 04/16/2013.

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Question Answer
How does REBT, a cognitive behavioural treatment, work? Extends ABC model, adding DEF. Disputing (D), a more effective attitude to life (E) and a new set of feelings (F).
Evaluate CBT. Strengths: Appropriateness- REBT usefulness not limited to people with mental disorders but also to non-clinical population, e.g. exam anxiety. Yoichi et al - developed computer based counselling programme based on REBT that has produced significant decreases in anxiety. Effectiveness - Engels et al - meta-analysis found REBT more effective in treatment of different types of isorder and more ffective than SD or others. Limitations: Irrational Environments- REBT fails to address irrational environments which may exist beyond the therapeutic situation which reinforces maladaptive behaviour. Not Suitable for All- REBT doesn't always work and some people dislike the direct advice or fail to put principles into practice. Ethics- Disputing what appears to be an irrational belief may create difficulties for client for whom the belief is based on a fundamental religious belief.
What are the steps of psychoanalysis? 1. Free association 2. Therapist interpretation 3. Working through
Evaluate psychoanalysis. Strengths: Effectiveness- Bergin - analysis of 10,000 patient histories estimated that 80% benefitted compared to 60% who received different approaches. Length of Treatment- Tschuschke et al - 450 patients, found that psychodynamic therapies more effective in long term. The longer the treatment, the better the outcomes. Limitations: False Memories- Critics claim that some therapists are unwittingly planting false memories of sexual abuse or abduction. Can't assume patient can reliably recall early memories that have been repressed. Appropriateness- Freud failed to appreciate individual differences, therapies are not adjusted to suit the individual. No Better than Placebos- Eysenck - failure of Freudian therapy to improve onspontaneous remission or placebo treatment proves inadequacy of Freudian theory.
What are the steps of systematic desensitisation? 1. Patient taught how to relax using relaxation techniques. 2. Create hierarchy of scenes each causing more anxiety than the previous. 3. Works through the hierarchy gradually. 4. Two responses of relaxation and fear are incompatible and fear is eventually dispelled. 5. Client can imagine feared situation or be in presence of phobic stimulus.
Evaluate systematic desensitisation. Stengths: Appropriateness- Relatively quick and require less effort from patient, more likely to continue. Can be self-administered using computer simulation, makes delivery of treatment even more efficient for patient. Effectiveness- McGrath et al - estimated that SD is effective with 75% of patients with phobias. Capafons et al - people with aerophobia had less anxiety compared to control group and showed less physiological signs of fear. Limitations: Symptom Substitution- Doesn't deal with cause of anxiety, other symptoms can appear later on. Langevin - no evidence support. Not Universally Effective- Less effective with treating anxiety with underlying adaptive component (e.g. dangerous animal) than if personal. 'Ancient' fears helped ancestors.
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