Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Francesca Wilson
Flashcards by Francesca Wilson, updated more than 1 year ago
Francesca Wilson
Created by Francesca Wilson about 5 years ago
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AS - Level AS Biology Flashcards on Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells, created by Francesca Wilson on 03/29/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Eukaryotic Cells - Major organelles are contained within membranes - Have a proper nucleus - Usually have Mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, Chloroplast etc. - Examples; Animals, Plants and Fungi
Prokaryotic Cells - Contain no nucleus - No membrane-bound organelles - Unicellular organisms - Less complexed - Components float freely within cytoplasm - Examples: Bacteria and Archaea
What is the structure and function of the Plasma Membrane? Structure: Found on surface of animal cells Function: Regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell, has receptor molecules
What is the structure and function of the Cell Wall? Structure: Rigid structure mainly made of the carbohydrate cellulose Function: Supports plant cells
What is the structure and function of the Nucleus? Structure: Large organelle surrounded by a nuclear envelope (double membrane) containing pores, chromatin and the nucleolus Function: Contains DNA to control the cell and releases RNA and produces ribosomes
What is the structure and function of the Lysosome? Structure: Round organelle surrounded by a membrane Function: Contains digestive enzymes to digest invading cells or break down worn out components of the cell
What is the structure and function of the Ribosome? Structure: Very small organelle that either floats free in the cytoplasm or attached to RER Function: The site where proteins are made
What is the structure and function of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)? Structure: System of membranes enclosing a fluid filled space. Surface covered in ribosomes. Folds and processes proteins.
What is the structure and function of the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)? Structure: System of membranes enclosing fluid filled space. Function: Synthesises and processes lipids.
What is the structure and function of vesicles? Structure: Small fluid filled sac in cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane. Function: Transports substances, formed at golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum or the cell surface.
What is the structure and function of the Golgi Apparatus? Structure: Group of fluid filled flattened sacks, vesicles often at the edge of the sacks. Function: Processes and packages new lipids and proteins, also makes lysosomes.
What is the structure and function of the Mitochondrion? Structure: Oval-shaped, double membrane- inner folded into cristae which forms the matrix containing enzymes. Function: Site of aerobic respiration, ATP produced.
What is the structure and function of the Chloroplast? Structure: Small, flattened structure found in plant cells, double membrane, thylakoid membranes are stacked up to from grana linked by lamellae. Function: Site of photosynthesis.
What is the structure and function of the Centriole? Structure: Small, hallow cylinders containing a ring of micro tubules. Function: Involved with the separation of chromosomes during cell division.
What is the structure and function of the Cillia? Structure: Small hair like structures found on the surface membrane of some animal cells. Outer membrane and 9-2 microtubules. Function: Microtubules allow cillia to move to move substances along the cell surface.
What is the structure and function of the flagellum? Structure: Surrounded by plasma membrane with 9-2 microtubules. Function: Micrtotubes contract to make the flagellum move propels the cell forward.
Outline the four structures of the Cytoskeleton. 1. Support - microtubules and microfilaments hold the organelles in place. 2. Strengthen the cell and maintain shape. 3. Transport organelles and material within the cell. 4. Move the cell.
Where is the DNA held in a prokaryotic cell? No nucleus - DNA free in the cytoplasm
Where is the DNA held in an Eukaryotic cell? Nucleus present - DNA is inside the nucleus.
Do prokaryotics have a cell wall? If so, what is it made of? Yes, a polysaccharide called peptidoglycan.
Do Eukaryotics have a cell wall? If so what is it made of? Animals = no cell wall. Plants = Cellulose cell wall. Fungi = Chitin cell wall.
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