F212: Classification, Biodiversity & Evolution

helen.rebecca
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A Level Biology (F212) Flashcards on F212: Classification, Biodiversity & Evolution, created by helen.rebecca on 03/16/2015.

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helen.rebecca
Created by helen.rebecca over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
What is the study of classification called? Taxonomy
What is Phylogeny? The study of the evolutionary history of groups of organisms
What is classification? The act of arranging organisms into groups based on their similarities and differences.
What are the 8 taxonomic groups? Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
What are the key features of organisms in Kingdom Prokaryotae? Prokaryotic Unicellular No nucleus Less than 5µm Few organelles Smaller ribosomes 2 groups: true & ancient bacteria
What are the key features of organisms found in Kingdom Protoctista? Eukaryotic Usually live in water Unicellular or simple multicellular They're put into this group as they don't fit anywhere else Feed heterotrophically or autotrophically
What are key features of organisms found in Kingdom Fungi? Eukaryotic Chitin cell walls Either saprotrophic or parasitic Include unicellular yeast & threads called hyphae
What are the key features of organisms found in Kingdom Plantae? Eukaryotic Multicellular Cell walls made of cellulose Can photosynthesise Contain chlorophyll Autotrophic (produce their own food)
What are the key features of organisms found in Kingdom Animalia? Eukaryotic Multicellular No cell walls Heterotrophic (consume plants & animals)
What is the binomial system of naming organisms? A universal latin name with 2 parts 1st part is the genus name (& has a capital letter) 2nd part is the species name (& doesn't have a capital) The name is always either underlined or written in italics
Classification used to be solely based on observable features. What is it now based on? 1) Molecular evidence (e.g. DNA base sequences) 2) Embryological evidence (e.g. similarities in an organisms early development) 3) Anatomical evidence (e.g. structure & function of different body parts) 4) Behavioural evidence
What is the 3 domain classification system? It works with the 5 kingdom systems, & has 3 'domains' which are above the kingdoms. The 3 domains are: Bacteria, Archaea & Eukarya The system takes into account the large differences between ancient & true bacteria
Define species A group of similar organisms able to reproduce to give fertile offspring
Define habitat The area inhabited by a species. It includes the physical factors, like the soil & temperature range, and the living (biotic) factors like food availability and predator presence.
Define biodiversity. The variety of living organisms in an area
Define habitat diversity The number of different habitats in an area.
Define species diversity. The number of different species and the abundance of each species in an area.
Define genetic diversity. The variation of alleles within a species (or a population of a species).
What can we do to ensure the areas sampled are random when measuring the biodiversity of a habitat? The habitat being sampled could be split into a grid, and a random number generator could b used to pick out coordinates.
What is species richness and how can it be measured? It's the number of different species in an area. It's measured by taking random samples of a habitat and counting the number of different species.
What is species evenness and how can it be measured? It's a measure of the relative abundance of each species in an area. It's measured by taking random samples of a habitat and counting the number of individuals of each species.
What is the equation for Simpson's index of diversity? What does the result show? D=1-(∑(n/N)^2) Where n=Total number of individuals of one species N= Total number of all organisms of all species. Result is always between 0 and 1 The closer to 1 the result is, the more diverse the habitat
Describe the current estimates of global biodiversity. 1) There 1.5-1.75m named species. 2) Scientists agree that a large proportion of species haven't been named yet. Some haven't even been discovered. 3) Estimates normally range from a total 5-100m species. Most recently, 14m species has been suggested.
Define variation It's the differences that exist between individuals.
Define intraspecific and interspecific variation. Intraspecific: variation within a species. Interspecific: variation between different species