Memory Studies GCSE Flashcards to help remember

Megan  Briggs
Flashcards by Megan Briggs , updated more than 1 year ago
Megan  Briggs
Created by Megan Briggs about 5 years ago
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Description

These are all the studies you need to learn for the memory modual

Resource summary

Question Answer
Rehearsal and Short Term Memory Aim: To see if you need to rehearse to hold information in short term store. Methods: Participants were given a set of trigrams and asked to count down in threes from a number to prevent rehearsal. Results: After 3 seconds of reciting the numbers 80% remembered at 3 seconds and after 18 seconds only 10% remembered. Conclusion: We cannot hold information without rehearsing it
Evaluation Points for Rehearsal and Short Term Memory Lacks ecological validity as the test was in a laboratory conditions so when reciting the trigrams may have acted differently. Lacks mundane realism remembering trigrams is not an average task so it may not be real to life.
Reconstuctive memory study Aim: To see if someone is given something unfamiliar to remember whether they alter the information Method: Participants were asked to read a story called the war of the ghosts which was a native american legend. They were then asked to retell the story as accurately as possible. A few weeks later they were told again to retell the story. Results: They found out that they found it hard to remember the parts about Spirits and changed bits to make sense to them. Each time it became less accurately. Conclusion: Memory is effected by your own beliefs.
Reconstuctive Memory evaluation And applications The story can be criticized because the names were unusual and the story doesn't relate to them and was confusing and random Practical application: In crimes people might forget things and fill up the gaps therefore people may have different recollections of an event
Levels of processing Aim: To see if the type of question asked about words will effect the amount of words recalled. Method: Participants were shown a list of words and asked certain questions about the words which required a yes or no answer, they required either structural, or semantic processing. They were given a longer list of words and had to identify the words they were given. Findings: Participants identified 70% of the words that required semantic processing, 35% of words which required phonetic processing and 15% of the words that required structural processing. Conclusion: The deeper the level of processing the more information you will remember.
Levels of processing applications We now know we should revise with spider diagrams and active revision.
Interference Aim: To see if new learning effected remembering old information. Method: They were split into two groups, A and B, A was asked to remember 1 list of pairs and then to remember another different one, then group B were asked to remember just 1 list both groups were asked to recall the first list. Results: Group B recollection was more accurate. Conclusion: New learning effects the learning of previous things.
Context Aim: To see whether you remember things better if you remember things and recall things in the same place. Method: Deep sea divers were split into 4 groups. 1 learnt on land and recalled on land, another learnt in the sea and recalled in the sea, as well one learnt on ground and recalled in the sea and one learnt in the sea and recalled on the ground. Results: Those who remembered and recalled in the same place remembered 40% more. Conclusion: You remember more if you learn things in the same place as you need to remember the information.
Anterograde amnesia A man has 2/3s of his hippo campus removed because he had epilepsy. After the operation he was not able to learn new information. This proves the hippo campus is essential for recording new memories.
Retrograde Amnesia A 22 year old patient fell off a motorbike and suffered from severe concussion x rays showed he had no fracture in the skull but he couldn't remember anything 2 years prior to the accident.
Leading Questions Loftus and Palmer Aim: To see whether leading questions effect accuracy recall. Method: 45 participants were split into 5 groups each group were asked a question but each time a different synonym of a verb was used e.g bumped and smashed. They watched a film of a car crash and were asked what speed the car was going at. Results: They found out that some words made people estimate higher speeds. Conclusion: Our accuracy is effected by leading questions.
Leading questions evaluation Ecological validity: It took part in a lab you don't normally see a car crash in a lab so it may have effected your recollection. Mundane realism: You don't normally estimate the speeds of car crashing therefore it may be in accurate.
Famillarity and accuracy Bruce and Young Aim: To see if familiarity affects the accuracy of identifying faces. Method: Psychology lectures were caught on cameras at the entrance of a building, participants were asked to identify the faces they saw on the security tape from a series of photographs. Results: The students identified more correctly than experienced security staff. Conclusion: Previous familiarity helps us identify faces.
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