Exotic diseases of dogs

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Bvms small animals (rabies) Flashcards on Exotic diseases of dogs, created by buzzybea1 on 02/18/2014.
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Question Answer
What are the main exotic diseases to be aware of in dogs? Rabies, leishmaniosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis brucellosis, anclostomyosis and dirofliaria
What is the most common form of rabies in europe? sylvatic form
What is the virus in bats which can cause rabies in humans? llysavirus
How does rabies enter the nervous system? it enters through a bite, uses the ACH receptors on the sensory neurone then travels retrograde up to the brain
What are the two presentations of rabies? Paralytic (dumb) or encephalitic (furious)
What procedure should be taken if the animal is suspected of having rabies? cage the animal,call the police or LA, wait DO NOT PTS OR REFER
What is the procedure when being bitten by a suspected rabid animal (including bats? Clean the wound with 20% soap, irrigate with 45% ethanol using a 20 ml syringe, get an IgG vaccine both locally and systemically
What is the leishmanosis in europe? Leishmanosis infantum
which countries commonly have leishmania? Portugal, itally and south of france
How is leishmania passed on? through sand flies and direct contact
where are sand flies most commonly seen? Beaches and in woods.
what are the symptoms of leishmania? Its a waxing and waning condition, there may be pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, pale mucus membranes, exfoliative dermatitis, periocular alopecia, mucocutaenous ulcerations and nodular lesions, sifting lameness and anemia. Most present with just a couple of skin lesions
How is leishmania confirmed? Direct identification on a bone marrow aspirate or lymph node aspirate. There are ELISA's available although they cannot confirm if the infection is current or not. Bristol have the facilities to conduct a PCR.
How is leishmania prevented? keep the animal in at peak sand fly activity, use of insect repellent- deltamythrin collar and there is a vaccine available which needs 3 doses over 9 weeks- this doesn't prevent infection just the number of parasites to infect
What is the treatment for leishmania? Pentavalent antimonials (megulmine antimonite or sodium stibogluconate) or allopurinol. Megulmine antimonite is given as a daily injection for 4 weeks whilst allopurinol is given BID for 6 months.
What are ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis classified as? Rickettsia infections
how are ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis transmitted? by tick
What are the signs of an acute ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis infection? Pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, petechiations, epitaxis and pale mucus membranes. In anaplasmosis infections there will also be joint swellings which develop into pancytopenias and hyperglobinemias.
which breed of dog is predisposed to getting a chronic anaplasmosis or ehrlichiosis infection? German sheapards
what is the treatment option for ehrlichiosis? doxycycline and low does short term preds
what transmits babesiosis? Ticks
what are the two babesia infections in euope? Gibsoni and canis
what are the ticks which carry the babesia infections? Dermacentor reticularis and rephicephalus sangualis
What are the signs associated with babesiosis? they are variable although some signs of the acute disease include; lethargy, anorexia, pyrexia, hemolytic anemia, shock DIC an death
How is babesia diagnosed? Blood smears using peripheral ear blood.
what is the treatment for babesia? Blood transfusions, imidocarb (note this is painful and hepatotoxic), short term low does preds and treatment of concurrent erhlichiosis (even if it cannot be seen on the smears)
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