Classics 102 - The Iliad

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Chemistry 101 Classics 102 Flashcards on Classics 102 - The Iliad, created by jennabarnes12387 on 03/04/2014.

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Question Answer
Although we have no historic proof that the Trojan war actually happened, what event gives us a hint? at the end of the Iliad the writer mentions a solar eclipse. these are very rare so it suggested that if the Trojan war happened it would have happened around April of 1178
How is the Iliad limited in its information about the Trojan war? the Iliad starts in the 10th year of the war so we don't know much about the first 9 years
Why do we think Homer wasn't the only author of his poems and stories? the Trojan war was happening in the 12 century BC while homer was writing in about 750 BC. Also the writings have a mixture of dialects and historical details form different times. Because the events of the war happened 400 years before homer it has a mixture of different tellings and details
what does Rhapsoidein mean to recite a poem or stitch together a song
what does Rhaptein mean? to sew or stitch together
what is a Oide? a song
How were poems recited? they were said on the fly like a freestyle rapper. it was never the same twice. the poems were written and spoken in dactylic hexameter, long short short, which is close to natural Greek speech
how is the formula similar in all epic poems? (3) they have similar phrases. such as "Then young dawn with her rose-red fingers shone once more" is always said when a new day starts. also "He fell, thunderously, and his armour clattered upon him" is said whenevr someone falls. both end with half a line and are easily recognised. also the use of epithets no matter how the character is feeling such as swift footed Achilles even if he isn't running at the time. type scenes are common such as feasts, rituals, battles, and travel
What evens happened long before the war that effected it? first Zeus appear to Queen Leda of Sparta as a Swan . she was said to have laid two eggs, one becoming the inhumanly beautiful but not immortal Helen and the other her mortal sister Clytemnestra
What became of Helen and Clytemnestra? Helen had many suitors but in the end she married Menelaus and they became King and Queen of Sparta. Clytemnestra married Agamemnon and became queen of Muycenae
What do we know about Paris? he is the younger prince of Troy. he was on the mountain when the goddesses came to him because he was working as a shepherd because he had been exiled when a prophecy was spoken that he would bring the downfall of Troy
What even really began to the Trojan war? For some unknown reason, Paris was invite to visit Sparta. While there he met Helen and took her back to Troy with him even though she was already married.
How do different versions of this story reflect differently on Helen. If the author thought woman were reckless and bad, she was written as if she ran away with him, choosing to leave her husband and be a disgrace. In the kinder versions she was kidnapped and thus was not to blame
What do we know about Achilles? he was the son of a minor sea goddess. When he was born a prophecy was told to her that if she dipped her son in the river Styx he would be invincible. Her skin couldn't touch the water and she didn't want to just throw him in so she held him by the his heel. all of him is invincible except his Achilles heel
What unexpected outcome came of a particular oath? Before Helen was married she had many suitors as she was very beautiful. When he father chose her husband he worried the other men would start a war over and kill her fiances. he make them swear an oath not to harm her husband and if Helen was ever in trouble they had to help her husband to benefit her. This of course led to many kingdoms joining forces under Agamemnon
What story do we go back to when Agamemnon's army had unfavorable wind conditions before battle. he prayed to the gods and they told him to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia. wether she was saved by Artemis or died depends on the version. either way her family lost her forever but Agamemnon got his wind conditions. His wife never forgot this though
What do we know about Hector? he si the elder son of Troy. he is the Trojan champion opposite Achilles who is the Archean champion
who is Patroclus? he is Achilles' best friend
what did the Greeks call themselves? the word Greeks is Latin so they didn't use this. they called themselves Acheans or Hellenes
who are the Myridons? the men under Achilles' command
what else is Troy called? Ilium or Ilion
who is Hecuba? the queen of troy, sometimes called Hekabe
who is Andromache? Hector's wife
who is Ainais? the son of Aphrodite and Archaises from the homeric hymn to Aphrodite. he is sometimes called Aeneas. he is the most famous hero to escape the Troy on the Trojan side
whats the difference between the important Greek and Trojans characters? the Trojan characters are mostly family while the Greeks are warriors.the Trojans have the family involved whether they want to or not as the war is outside their gates
where do the gods stand on this war? Aphrodite is very strongly for the Greeks while the other gods are on various sides
How did book one of the Iliad start? during the war, Chryseis, the daughter of Apollo's priest Chryse, was taken by the Greeks as a spoil of war. Her father goes to the Greek ships to get her back
How does Agamemnon react to this? he doesn't want to give her back as she is his prize. he dismisses the priest with a threat
the Trojans don't worship the Greek gods. Why did they make this man a priest of Apollo? it allowed the Greeks to understand and humanize them.
What does the priest do after he is threatened by Agamemnon? he leaves but he goes to pray to Apollo. Apollo heard him and set a plague on the Greek army and animals
How long did the plauge last? 9 days
How does Achilles react after 9 days? he gathers all the men together and suggests they need to make a sacrifice to Apollo to make the plauge stop
Who is Calchas? what does he say? he is a seer. he stands up and says they have to give the girl back
Why does Agamemnon? he likes her better then his wife. to the Greeks stuff was glory and she was part of his glory.
Achilles and Agamemnon yell at each other. What really happens in the end? after Achilles called Agamemnon greedy and Agamemnon calls him a cheat in retrun, Agamemnon decides he will give the girl back if its best fro his people, but he wants another prize in exchange.
What does he want in compensation? why is this a problem? He wants another girl in the Greek camp, Briseis. She is Achilles prize and thus he insults Achilles by demanding her. its even worse because a god demands Chryseis but Agamemnon is not a god
How does Achilles react to Agamemnon demand? What happens? he gets very angry and draws his sword. suddenly Athena appears and tells him not to kill Agamemnon. she promises he will have prizes three times over if he checks his rage. Achilles listens and instead yells at Agamemnon again and vows to never yield to him again.
What becomes of the two girls? Chryseis is brought back to her father and Briseis is brought by Achilles best friend Patrocle, to Agamemnon tent to save Achilles the pain of bringing her himself
How does Achilles reaction to loosing Briseis show us the Greek idea of a hero? He wept after she was taken. In Greek culture it was OK for a hero to cry. He also prays to his mother Thetis for her to get Zeus favor
What does Achilles ask his mother to do? to go to Zeus and ask him to help the Trojans win so Agamemnon will regret angering Achilles
Why would Thetis have influence with Zeus? she unchained Zeus when he was trapped by Hera, Poseidon, and Athena.
How else does he force his mother's hand? reminds her of his choice to live a short glorious life and not a long life with a big family.
What does this tell us about achilles? he is a traitor who fights for his own interests
How is Apollo appeased? the priest gets his daughter back and the Greeks make an offering to him. He then takes the plague back
What happens when Thetis goes to talk with Zeus? he tries to send her away becuase he is afraid his wife will find out he is conspiring with her. Hera finds out anyway, they fight and in the end he agrees to help Achilles
What is the Greek image of a hero? usually semi divine figures, great, strong, and undefeated warriors. they usually have many prizes from battle, honor, and glory. they respect the gods and they are brave
What information do we need to understand book 3 of the Iliad? in book 2 Agamemnon had a dream that the gods wanted them to go home. When he told his troops they were all for this even though he hadn't intended to leave. After a speech he re inspires the troops and recommits them to this 10 year war.
How does the book start? It starts with the two armies on the battlefield waiting. Menelaus sees Paris with the Trojans and wants revenge on him for taking his wife. Paris also sees Menelaus but he hides in the lines of the soldiers, scared.
What happens when Hector sees his brother react this way? He gets angry with him, calling him a coward and a prince of beauty. he wishes he was never born. Hector is the hero type here while Paris is not
How does Paris react? He tells his brother that he is right, but he has a plan. He plans to battle one on one with Menelaus for Helen and all her riches to stop the war
What happens next? Hector approves ad tells the armies his brothers idea. The winner will keep Helen, both sides will make peace and the Greeks will go home. Agamemnon makes sure that a sacrife is made to the gods so they can supervise and make sure the deal is kept
What happens with Helen at this time? the messenger goddess Iris disguises herslef as Hector's sister and goes to her rooms to tell her of the duel. She also fills her for a longing to see her old husband, her people, and her parents. She decides to go to the wall and see the duel
What happens when Helen goes to the wall? What does this say about king Priam? King Priam tells her to sit with him. He doesnt blame her for missing her poeple or that she practically starrted this 10 yera war. It shows he is an admirable man. He blames the gods for the war instead of blaming one woman. He asks her to tell him about the soldiers he points out.
Next comes a sacrifice scene to Zeus and a prayer to Helios. Why Helios? Helios is the god of the sun. He supposedly sees everything the light touches so he makes a good spy and supervisor.
What happens after the sacrifice? Menelaus and Paris prepare for battle. Paris throws his spear and it hits Menelaus' shield but only bends. Menelaus prays and then gets his spear through Paris' shield and breastplate so it grazes skin. Menelaus prays again and then tries to hit Paris over the head with his sword but his sword shatters. he grabs Paris' helmet so his chinstrap starts to choke him.
What ends the fight? Aphrodite shows up and takes Paris away to his bedroom.she then goes to get Helen
How does Helen react to Aphrodite? maybe becuase she is part divine, she knows who she is. She is angry that aphrodite wants to take her to ruin again. She knows she is hateful and even so her old husband wants to take her home. she wont share his bed becuase he is a coward
How does Aphrodite react? What happens? Aphrodite gets angry and threatens to throw her off the wall. Helen relents and goes to Paris
When Helen goes to see Paris what do they talk about? what does this tell us about Paris? Helen gets mad at him, calling him a coward and saying he should have died on the battlefeild. Instead of getting mad Paris blames the outcome on Athena helping the Greeks. They then calls her to bed. Athena wasn't even involved in the war, so this tells us Paris doesn't want to take the blame. He can see Paris is a bit of a weasel
What is happening on the battle field while this is happening? Menelaus is trying to find Paris among the army but no one knows where he went?
What do the people and warriors think of Paris? What effects there actions? they hate Paris. Priam is the rightful king and is respecting and the people know he does not hate his son so they would never disrespect Priam by handing him over
What do the Greeks believe is the outcome of the battle? they believe because Paris ran away Menelaus won the battle and thus is entitled to Helen and her dowry
Why is Paris not a warrior? he is not brave or prideful. He is described as a prince of beauty and even Aphrodite dresses him up when she takes him away. He is easily distracted by Helen and Aphrodite, showing that he isn't focused enough. he shows what it meant to be a warrior by being the opposite
What happens in book 6 at the start? the continuation of the battle with Menelaus standing over adresstist about to kill him
What becomes of the man? he begs for his life, grabbing Menelaus around the legs, showing a sign of submission. Menelaus is about the spare him when Agamemnon comes to him, taunting and calling him soft. Menelaus changes his mind, pushing the man away and Agamemnon kills him
Who comes to Hector on the battle field? what does he say? his brother Helenus, who is a seer. He tells him that even though the Greeks are beating them, they must stand their ground. He also tells Hector he must goes back to the city and get his mother and all the noble women together
his brother tells Hector to get all the women in the city to pray. What else is he to do? get his mother to give him the very best royal robe and take it to Athena's temple and cast it over her knees and the promise of 12 heifers later
Why is Hector going back to the city different then when Paris went back? Hector is going back for a purpose and of his own choice. he isn't escaping battle to protect himself, but to help the Greeks win
What happens when Hector arrives at the city? he is surrounded by women asking out there their sons and husbands. his mother offers him wine to relax him but he refuses. He wont offer any to Zeus either as his is covered in blood and will not worship the gods if he isn't pure. this shows another warrior trait that they worship the gods well and follow ritual practice
What happens after Hector tells his mother to take the women to Athena's temple? they od as they are told. the Priestess Theano lets them in and they pray but Athena refuses to hear their prayers
When does Hector go after he speaks to his mother? He goes to find his brother who is polishing his Armour in Helen's room while she and her ladies embroider
What do the Brother talk about when Hector finds Paris? Hector taunts him again calling him coward. he is surrounded by women and he is not a hero. Helen speaks up also saying she wishes she was married to a better man. Paris agrees with the taunts. Hector soon leaves them
Where does Hector go before returning to battle? he goes to find his wofe and son. They are upon the wall. He is very happy to see his wife but she is wepping since she believes his pride and bravery will kill him today. He tells he not to be worried ad then goes to hold his son.
Why is Hector's son's reaction to Hector's helmet important? Hector's epithet is he always has his helmet that flashes in the light. His son cringes from the helmet and cries until his father takes it off and prays for him. the very thing that makes him who he is scares the people he loves and ultimately will mean his death
Who does Hector meet up with before leaving the palace? what do they say to each other? Paris catches up with him. He tells Hector he means to go back with him. Hector is no longer angry with him and tells him he is a warrior with no equal but he is no leader. Him leading his people with his actions of taking Helen has brought the people into danger
What happens on the battle field? How does Achilles get involved? The Trojans are winning. Achilles is still too proud to fight so instead he and Nestor decide that Achilles best friend Patrocles will wear Achilles' armor to scare the Greeks.
What happens to Patrocles? things are going very well on the battle feild becuase of his armor. He goes against instructions and keeps pushing forward. In the end he is singles out bu Hector and is killed by him
How does Achilles react to Patrocles death? He is enraged. He makes peace with Agamemnon and rejoins the war. His mother Thetis goes to Hepheastus to get him new armor as his was taken by Hector off of Patroceles body. When he goes to battle in the morning the Greeks see him and run away. he cuts down most of the army single-handedly, killing so many that the bodies damn up the river and anger the river god there.
Hector makes his soldiers stay out but they have no home. What happens when Achilles gets to Hector? Hector runs from Achilles and Achilles chases him 3 times around the city but cannot catch him. To help Achilles, Athena disguises herself as one of Hectors brothers and convinces him to stop and fight. Hector is wearing Achilles' old armor and thus is wasn't made just for him and Achilles knows the weak spots. Achilles kills him
What was Hectors dying wish. Does Achilles honor it? Hector asked that his body be returned to his family to a proper burial. Achilles does not honor it and instead drags the body by the heels behind his chariot back to the Greek camp?
What happens at the Greek camp? How do the gods get involved? The have a funeral for Patroceles for 9 days with parties and athletic competitions. Achilles drags Hector's body around the camp each day. The gods decide this is wrong and Apollo and Athena keep the body from rotting. Hermes is sent by Zeus to Troy to bring king Priam and wagons of loot to the Greek camp
How does the story end? Priam is brought into the camp, unseen, with Hermes. He appeals to Achilles saying Achilles has a father and wouldn't he be upset if he couldn't have Achilles body in this situation. Achilles anger softens and his gives the body to Priam. He isn't a fool so he also takes the loot. The story ends with a temporary truce between the Greeks and the Trojans
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