Biology definitions

Ben Smith
Flashcards by , created almost 6 years ago

Human Biology Flashcards on Biology definitions, created by Ben Smith on 04/30/2013.

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Ben Smith
Created by Ben Smith almost 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Refractory period Unresponsive period where Na+ and K+ channels cannot be opened by a stimulus. Ensures nerve impulse only travels in one direction
Infarct area of tissue that has been deprived of its oxygen supply and dies as a result
Drug any chemical that affects the way your body functions and how you think or feel.
Drug abuse Habitual misuse of a chemical substance, including illegal drugs, prescription drugs and over-the-counter drugs. 'Abuse' to use that is problematic of harmful, to individual or person around them.
G proteins Guanine nucleotide binding proteins Family of proteins involved in transmitting signals into the cell. Understanding of protein interactions, function and signalling pathways may lead to treatments/preventative treatments.
Homeostasis Maintenance of a constant internal enviroment
Endocrine glands Glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood rather than into a duct
Excretion removal of unwanted products of metabolism from the body. In cells there is a sequence of chemical reactions, each step controlled by enzymes.
Aldosterone Hormone released by adrenal glands. Regulates blood pressure. Increases reabsorption of sodium and water, along with excretion of potassium in distal tubles of kidneys. Action raises blood pressure.
Haemocrit Measures how much space in blood is occupied by red blood cells. ratio of volume occupied by packed red blood cells compared to volume of whole blood.
Metabolism chemical processes occuring in a living organism that are essential for the maintenance of life.
Aquaporins Intrinsic proteins that form pore through phospholipid bilayer and selectively conduct water in and out while preventing passage of ions and other solutes.
Anaemia Body is defecient in numbers of erythrocytes
Oedema Fluid retention Hands, feet and area around eyes becomes puffy and swollen due to fluid retention in the tissue.
Dialysis Process in which components of blood are seperated usnig partially permeable membrane. Blood is cleansed of impurities, and returned to patient.
Progestin Synthetic progesterone
Intervertebral disc disc of cartilage between two vertebrae
Primer Short, single-stranded DNA sequences (10-20 bases) Needed in PCR to bind to section of DNA, because olymerase enzymes cannot bind directly to single stranded DNA fragments
Minisatellite Section of DNA that consists of a short series of bases, occur at more than 1000 locations in human genome
Vector Used to transport DNA into host cell. Bacterial plasmids are often used as vectors. Viruses can also be used.
HLA Human leucocyte antigen
MHC Area of chromosome 6 where the loci for genes for HLA antigens are situated: Major histocompatibility complex
Tissue rejection Where the recipient of donor tissue mounts an immune response against that tissue, eventually destroying that tissue
Compatability Ability to accept transplanted tissue
Synapse Specialized junction where two neurones meet
Blink reflex rapid closing of the eyelid when something threatening approaches the eye
Resting potential charge inside cell is more negative than outside cell -40mV
20/20 + 20/40, difference? 20/20 = Normal acuity 20/40 = need to be 20ft from object to view it with same resolution that someone with 20/20 would from 40ft
Blood-Brain Barrier a mechanism that alters the permeability of brain capillaries, so that some substances, such as certain drugs, are prevented from entering brain tissue, while others are allowed to enter freely, e.g oxygen
Dorsal root ganglion nodule on the dorsal root of the spinal cord that contains cell bodies of sensory neurones
Gene Length of DNA that codes for the production of a specific polypeptide
Allele Different form of a gene that occupies the same locus on homologous chromosomes
Locus Position on chromosome where particular gene is found
Phenotype Persons observable characteristics, result of interaction between genotype and phenotype
Genotype Heterozygous/Homozygous Genetic make-up of individual All the alleles the nucleus of a human cell contains
Homozygous Genotype where two alleles of gene are the same, e.g AA or aa
Heterozygous Genotype where two alleles of same gene are different, e.g Aa
Dominant allele ALWAYS shows effect on phenotype
Recessive allele Only shows effect on phenotype when dominant allele is ABSENT
Codominant alleles Both alleles affect the phenotype in a heterozygote
Autosomes All chromosomes apart from sex chromosomes (X and Y)
Genetics Study of Genes, their inheritance and their effects
Chiasma crossover point between two chromatids of a chromosome during meiosis
Introns regions of DNA not translated into proteins
Exons regions of DNA that are translated into proteins
Annealing when sticky ends stick to eachother by forming hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs. When two pieces of DNA cut with same enzyme Ligase catalyses condensation of two molecules