Carbohydrates

emilyboynton
Note by emilyboynton, updated more than 1 year ago
emilyboynton
Created by emilyboynton almost 6 years ago
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Note on Carbohydrates, created by emilyboynton on 10/28/2014.
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Carbohydrates:

A molecule that contains CARBON HYDROGEN & OXYGEN

Examples: Glucose Cellulose Fructose Starch Sucrose Glycogen

Sugars:Monosaccharides - SINGLE sugar unitsCondensation reaction- join together to form:Disaccharides - 2 sugar unitsPolysaccharides - many chains 

Monosaccharides used for ENERGY and BUILDING BLOCKS

CxH2Oyx + y = variablesfor example:Glucose = C6H2O6(CH2O)nn can be any numberIf N = 3 = Triose (Glyceraldehyde)If N = 5 - Pentose (Fructose)If N= 6 - Hexose (Glucose)

Alpha Glucose:

Beta Glucose:

Isomerism:Isomer = Compound with SAME chemical formula but DIFFERENT chemical structureE.g    Alpha & Beta Glucose

Testing for monosaccharides:Benedict's ReagentAlkaline copper sulfate solutionHeated with reducing sugar = insoluble red precipitate of copper oxide

Disaccharides:Glycosidic BondCondensation Reaction:Allow monosaccharides to make polysaccharides- glucose + glucose = MALTOSE- glucose + galactose = LACTOSE- glucose + fructose = SUCROSEHydrolysis Reaction:Allow polysaccharides to break apart using water

Polysaccharides:Formed from many MonosaccharidesSTARCH:Insoluble store of glucose in plants formed from 2 GLUCOSE POLYMERSGLYCOGEN:Insoluble compact store of glucose in humansAlpha glucose units1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bondsBranched structure

Amylose:Alpha glucose1,4 Glycosidic bondsSpiral StructureAmylopectin:Alpha glucose1,4 & 1,6 Glycosidic bondsBranched structure

Cellulose:Made of beta glucoseMain structural sugar in PLANTSStructural component of cell wallsVERY strong - 33% of plant matterPolymer of Beta Glucose:Each monomer = invertedForm chains - run parallel with Hyrdogen bonds between chains to form microfibrils (very strong)

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