AP Psychology Unit 9 Vocabulary

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the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo zygote
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month Embryo
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth fetus
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm tertogens
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities Sensorimotor stage
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived Object Permanence
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. Preoperational Stage
preschool children have difficulty perceiving things from another's point of view Egocentric
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development Critical Period
parenting style in which parents impose rules and expect obedience Authoritarian parenting style
parenting style in which parents submit to their children's desires Permissive parenting style
parenting style in which parents are both demanding and responsive Authoritative parenting style
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible Primary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair Secondary sex characteristics
the first menstrual period Menarche
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines menopause
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another cross-sectional study
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time Longitudinal study
our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age. crystallized intelligence
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood fluid intelligence
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement Social Clock
a babies tendency to turn its head towards anything that brushes its cheek Rooting reflex
when the support is removed from behind the babies's neck it reaches out as if it is trying to grab onto something Moro Reflex
in response to a stroke on the outside of its foot a baby will flex its toes Babinski reflex
people who study how humans are continually developing physically, socially, and cognitively from infancy through old age Developmental psychologist
the conflict that we develop from genetic inheritance (our nature) or our experiences (the nurture we receive) nature vs. nurture
a Russian developmental psychologist who studied how a child's mind feeds on the language of social interaction Lev Vygotsky
1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance Elizabeth Kulber Ross: Stages of Grieving
he conducted a study in which he placed baby monkeys in a room with two "mothers". One was made from wires and was designed to feed while the other was made with terry cloth. They discovered that the monkey always went to the mother made from cloth and only went to the other mother for food. This is where we get the concept of contact comfort Harry Harlow's attachment research
the physical and emotional comfort that the infant receives from its mother Contact comfort
when this type of attachment is formed the child will often use the mother as a safe base, rely on her for comfort, and the parent's return is met with positive emotions Secure attachment
in this type of attachment the child usually avoids the parent and seek little to no comfort from them avoidant attachment
in this type of attachment the child is distressed by the parent leaving but is not comforted when they return ambivalent attachment
the crisis that babies (0-1 years) experience in Erikson's first stage of psychosocial development Trust vs. Mistrust
the crisis that toddlers (1-3 years) experience in Erikson's second stage of psychosocial development Autonomy vs. Doubt (shame)
the crisis that children (3-5 years) experience in Erikson's third stage of psychosocial development Initiative vs. Guilt
the crisis that school kids (5-12 years) experience in Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development Industry vs. Inferiority
the crisis that teenagers, or adolescences (13-18 years), experience in Erikson's fifth stage of psychosocial development Identity vs. Role confusion
the crisis that occurs in young adults (19-30 years) experience in Erikson's sixth stage of psychosocial development Intimacy vs. Isolation
the crisis found in middle aged adults (40-65 years) in Erikson's seventh stage of psychosocial development Generativity vs. stagnation
the eighth stage in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development that is usually found in older people (over 65 to death) Integrity vs. Despair
the theory that there are 8 stages that affect each person's pyschosocial development Erikson's Psychosocial development theory
the mental operations that enable children to to think logically about concrete events Concrete operations
the mental ability to think logically about abstract concepts formal operations
the principle that that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of the object Law of conservation
the frameworks that organize and interpret information schemata
interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas Assimilation
adapting our current understandings to incorporate new information Accommodation
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