Workbook 1: Leadership in Public Services

colinmillar
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Flashcards on Workbook 1: Leadership in Public Services, created by colinmillar on 04/26/2014.
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Definition of Leadership "Leadership involves a process whereby intentional influence is exerted by one person over other people to structure the activities and relationships in a group or organisation..."
Leadership: vision of the future, aligning people, energise people, positive and sometimes dramatic changes Management: plans and budgets, deciding structure and allocating staff, monitor results against plan, produce order, consistency and predictability
10 key management roles (Mintzberg) Interpersonal roles: figurehead, leader, liaison Information roles: monitor, disseminator, spokesperson Decisional roles: entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator
Management and Leadership Differences (Hollingsworth) Administration vs innovation Maintenance vs development Systems and structures vs focus on people Reliance on control vs inspiring trust Bottom line vs eye on the horizon Does things right vs does the right thing
Requirements for a successful implementation of a strategy (McKinsey 7 S) Structure (M), System (M), Strategy (M), Skills (L), Style (L), Staff (L), Superordinate goals (L)
Bases of power (French and Raven) Reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, expert
Needs based theory-X & Y (McGregor) Theory X: negative view of human nature, coercion and control the only way to drive people to work hard Theory Y: more positive view of human nature, seek and accept responsibility, leadership style of encouragement and facilitation, encouraging creativity and innovation
Predominant styles of leadership behaviour (Likert) Production centred: close attention to work of subordinates, explains work procedure and keenly interested in performance Employee-centred behaviour: interested in developing cohesive working groups, ensuring the employees are satisfied with their jobs
Individual styles of leadership (Blake and Moulton) Concern for production vs Concern for People (1,9): Country Club Management (1,1): Impoverished Management (9,9): Team Management (9,1): Authority and Task Management (5,5): Organisation Man Management
Style of Leadership (Blake and Moulton) No single leadership style for every situation. Scale of 1-8, higher score indicates people-oriented (friendly, cooperative, supportive, open), lower score indicates task-oriented (unfriendly, uncooperative, hostile, guarded)
Leadership style (Hershey and Blanchard) Success of a leader related to knowledge of the maturity level of the employees R1: Unable and unwilling R2: Unable but willing R3: Able but unwilling R4: Able and willing
Leadership model (Adair) A leader must vary the amount of attention he pays to each of these three areas according to the requirements of the situation: -Task element -Team element -Individual element
Transformational leadership vs Transactional leadership (Bass & Avolio) Transformational: transform people and orgs, change in heart and mind, enlarging vision and clarifying purpose Transactional: 'business as usual' style of leadership where leaders gain their workers' commitment to a task by rewarding in line with expectation of role and guaranteeing longevity
Path goal theory (House) Variant of transactional theory, based on expectancy theory of motivation Leadership behaviour is acceptable and satisfying to followers to the extent that they see it as an immediate source of satisfaction or as instrumental to future satisfaction Leader behaviour is motivational to the extent that: it makes the follower's needs contingent on effective performance, and complements the follower's environment by providing coaching guidance and support and rewards necessary for realising the links between level of performance and the attainment of reward available
Charismatic Leadership (Northouse) -a dominant personality and desire to influence others -strong role model behaviour -articulation of ideological goals -high expectation of followers and a confidence that these expectations will be met
Servant leadership Relies on leader wishing to serve his/her people, rather than overtly being driven by desire to lead/dictate
Team leadership (Belbin) (linked to servant) -knows when to ask questions rather than always have the answers -chooses to delegate and share roles -builds on and appreciates diversity -seeks out talented people -develops colleagues and creates a sense of mission and purpose
Distributed leadership Informal, emergent, dispersed Based on recognition that no one person is the ideal leader for every circumstance. All of us can exert an influence.
Distributed Leadership -emphasises the importance of relationships -focuses on everyone in the organisation as being involved in the organisation's future -promotes the concept of emergent leadership, encouraging organisations to develop leadership skills throughout the organisation and not just at the top of the hierarchy -relies on the ability of the individual to influence through their social interactions with colleagues, and not through their position -emphasises the outcomes of effective leadership, rather than the ability of leaders to prove themselves competent in various behaviours, traits and skills
Characteristics of effective leaders Leadership competencies rely on transformational leadership competencies including: -communication -problem-solving ability -people management -motivation -decision-making
2 strands of strategic planning/organisational leadership Rational strategy formulation (relies on predictability of events, planning, degree of certainty) -Emergent strategy formulation (emphasises uncertain conditions and involves bringing in contingencies, so much is unknown)
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