Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A Level Psychology A2 (Relationships) Mind Map on Formation, created by SophHatherlyx on 06/04/2013.

Created by SophHatherlyx over 6 years ago
The Breakdown Model (Rollie & Duck 2006)
Formation/maintenance/breakdown of relationships
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Discuss two theories of the breakdown of relationships
a a
1 Reward/Need Satisfaction Theory
1.1 A01
1.1.1 We are attracted to those who provide us with direct reinforcement. Operant Conditioning Rewarding stimuli = Positive Feelings Punishing Stimuli = Negative feelings
1.1.2 Attracted to those who we associate with pleasant events Classical Conditioning They gain a positive value as they are associated with something else which makes us happy
1.2 A02
1.2.1 Supporting Evidence... GRIFFIT AND GUAY- Creative Task. Experiementer praised some pp but not all. The pps raited experimenter higher when they had been praised, producing positive feelings in them ARON ET AL- pps who measured high on self report quest. also showed strong activity in areas of brain. Associated with high dopamine in brain reward centres Actural Evidence, cant br faked, MRI scans, Highly valid research CATE ET AL- 337 pps asked to test current relationship in terms of need/satisfaction level. Found reward was superior to other factors in determining relationship satisfaction HOWEVER- Hayes found we also gain satisfaction from giving as well as recieving
1.2.2 However... Most of the studies were conducted in a lab so there is a lack of mundane realism.
1.3 Bryne and Clore
2 A03
2.1 GENDER DIFFERENCES. Women tend to be socialised to being more attentive to the needs of men
2.2 CULTURAL BIAS. Reward/Need not relevant in all cultures. In many cultures, women focus on needs of others than recieving reinforcement
2.3 SOCIALLY SENSITIVE- Walster study. pps may be distressed if they found out that they had been scored low on attractiveness.
3 Similarity
3.1 A01
3.1.1 Similar personalities and attitudes promote liking. We dismidd those who are dissimilar to us
3.1.2 PERSONALITIES- More attracted to those with similar personality traits. Married couples with similar personalities are more likely to be happy
3.1.3 ATTITUDES- If partners attitudes towards important issues differ, process of attitude alignment occurs. One or both alter attitudes to similar
3.2 A02
3.2.1 Supporting Evidence... LEHO AND GEHER- Attitude similarity has an effect on likability. If a description of imaginary stranger was similar to pp, rated higher Similarity is important as there is a less chance of being rejected, which is rewarding WALSTER- People who are similar end up together if matched in terms of attractiveness, intelligence, social standing. He also said we are more likely to choose someone that we think wont reject us Students dance- pps prefered attractive dates, but asked those equally mated to those. MURSTEIN- more likely to date someone of an equal attractiveness. friends also found to be matched on physical attractiveness
3.2.2 However... ROSENBAUM- dissimilarity is more important as it determines if a relationship will/wont work out Assumes that all couples are only matched on attractiveness Walster study. YOSHINDA- points out that it only represents a narrow view of factors important in relationship formation. Mostly lab studies so lacks mundane realism

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