Parental Investment

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A Level Psychology A2 (Relationships) Mind Map on Parental Investment, created by SophHatherlyx on 06/05/2013.

Created by SophHatherlyx over 6 years ago
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Parental Investment
1 Maternal
1.1 A01
1.1.1 Females invest more than males. Big egg small sperm
1.1.2 Males never 100% sure its his, reason why dont invest heavily
1.1.3 Females invest more as when infant born theyre helpless
1.1.4 Costs of maternal investment makes random mating costly for females. Have to carry infant for 9 months, then care for it next few years. Males invest few moments of copulation and teaspoon of sperm
1.2 A02
1.2.1 Support... BAKER AND BELLIS- females must ensure good quality genes. so marry man with resources, but shop around for man with good genes. 14% of children not related to father GEHER- differences in ANS arousal found males are biologically less prepared than females to confront issues with parenting
1.2.2 However... DALY AND WILSON- expressed the ricks of cuckoldry as being abandoned which would stop income of resources, and risk of abandonment
2 Paternal
2.1 A01
2.1.1 Males invest less as costs of random mating is less for males
2.1.2 Males must protect themselves from cuckoldry
2.1.3 Sexual Jealousy evolved from cuckoldry. For males, more jelaous of sexual cheating due to cuckoldry. For females, more jealous of emotional focus as loss of resources
2.1.4 Grandparents of maternal line invest more than paternal
2.2 A02
2.2.1 Support... BUSS- Male students want sexually faithful, women want emotionally faithful HOWEVER- Students so not generalisable
2.2.2 However... BELSKY- males childhood has an impact on their investment to own child DUNBAR- if males increase success of childrearing it will pay them due to joint parental care ANDERSON- fathers and step fathers invest the same amount. dont discriminate REID- if males invest more into offspring it can lead to healthy lifestyle and decrease in infant mortality HARRIS- men tend to respond with greater arousal to sexual imager, challenging view sex difference in jealousy is adaptive in males and females
3 A03
3.1 REDUCTIONIST- Rowe argues male investment depends on personal and social conditions and personality of male.
3.2 SOCIALLY SENSITIVE- Women may not want to admit their husband is not childs bio father
3.3 CULTURAL BIAS- varies across cultures, as some dont believe in monogomy so multiple husbands or wives arent a problem so no sexual jealousy

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