Geology pt.2

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Geology Mind Map on Geology pt.2, created by emjaza on 06/27/2013.

Created by emjaza over 6 years ago
Plate Tectonics
F792 Geology Identifying Rocks
Izzy Backhouse
Economic Geology
Logan Franco
GCSE AQA Physics - Unit 3
James Jolliffe
yog thapa
Rocks and Minerals
Michael LEwis
Sedimentary Geology Quiz
Jack Winfield
Geology Revision
The Nature of Science
Amanda Valentine
Geology pt.2
1 Fossils
1.1 Remains
1.1.1 Rare- soft parts of an organism
1.1.2 Original hard parts- bones, shells
1.2 Petrified wood and bones
1.2.1 Remains changed to stone
1.2.2 Each cell replaced by stone
1.3 Impressions
1.3.1 Hard part dissolves
1.3.2 Leaves impression in surrounding rock
1.4 Traces
1.4.1 Preserved footprints
1.5 Random
1.5.1 Classified like animals and plants
1.5.2 Harder to find on land Less sediment deposited Less disturbance
1.5.3 P&A decompose quick with air
1.5.4 Decomposition rate slows when buried
1.5.5 Preserved naturally in the crust
1.5.6 Dating- relies on Zone/Index fossils
2 Metamorphic Rocks
2.1 Originally Igneous/Sedimentary
2.2 Changed- Pressure & Heat
2.3 Rocks at surface covered with sediments=Pressure
2.4 Earth's movement= flatten, twist, stretch rocks
2.5 Heat&Pressure= crystals grow, new minerals form, gases released
2.6 Folding&Faulting= twist and squeeze, change
2.7 crust moves= strain=cracks
2.8 Joint- no movement along crack
2.9 Fault- crack with movement
2.10 Fold- Yield to strain
2.11 Contact Metamorphism- locally melted, direct contact with hot igneous rock
2.12 Regional Matemorphism- buried deep=H&P,
2.12.1 Limestone=Marble
2.12.2 Siltstone=Slate
3 Rock Cycle
3.1 Endless process
3.2 Mixing and Reusing Earth's rocks
3.3 Metamorphic/Igneous both can melt=Magma
3.4 Igneous/Sedimentary can both be Metamorphic
4 Daily Use
4.1 Tools, shelter, fuel, transport, recreation materials
4.2 Evolutionary advantage in hunting, defence, food prep to mankind
4.3 WA dependant on rocks/mining
4.4 Either finite or non-renewable resources
4.5 Classifications
4.5.1 Petroleum (Natural gas&oil) Fossil Fuels, oil, gas decomposed P&A remains compressed,extreme pressure Extracted from ground shipped/piped to refineries physically & chemically changed Distillation- separates heavy and light into groups called fractions of hydrocarbons fuel oil- heating- car diesel naphtha- gasoline butane- cigarette lighters propane- bottled gas Ethane- component of natural gas Petrochemical plant- made into substances Xylene Propylene Benzene Ethylene Toluene Processed into well-known materials (polyethylene, nylon etc) Hand lotion, shampoo, hair colouring, lipstick, perfume, nail polish, mobile phones
4.5.2 Metallic Minerals are ores used to make metals opaque good conductors of electricity Shiny Platinum, silver, mercury, titanium, cobalt, gold, zinc Not found pure, mixed Alloy- 2+ metals combined Brass-Copper, zinc Bronze, Copper, zinc, tin
4.5.3 Non-Metallic Translucent form as crystals asbestos, quartz, talc, sulphur ceramic & chemical industries Roads & Buildings
4.5.4 Rock-forming minerals Major building materials of the Earth Largely silicates (contains silicon & oxygen) Silicon- non-metallic, always mixed, 2nd main element after oxygen in Earth's crust large families of micas, garnets etc.
4.5.5 Metallic, non-metallic, rock-forming, petroleum/plastic, coal
4.6 Toothpaste
4.6.1 silica is abrasive, to clean
4.6.2 Fluoride, from Fluorite makes teeth strong
4.6.3 Titanium, makes white, in white paint
4.6.4 Mica to make it sparkle
5 Plastics(Petroleum cont.)
5.1 Strong=waste problem
5.2 Research
5.2.1 Biodegradable
5.2.2 Photodegradable= degrades by sunlight
5.2.3 made from plants= decomposes to compost
5.2.4 Made from hydrocarbons
5.2.5 Want to reduce polymer chain= lose strength-brittle-degrade into co2/h2o
5.3 Biodegradable-expensive
5.4 Carseeonigetic-causes cancer when burnt
6 Coal
6.1 millions of years
6.2 remains of living things
6.3 found in layers/seams under Earth's surface
6.4 heating/ production of steel
6.5 ingredient in pencils, paint, plastics
6.6 Peat-Lignite-Coal
7 Removal of resources
7.1 Exploration
7.1.1 searching for something you want to find
7.1.2 geologist
7.1.3 process of finding areas where minerals can be found
7.1.4 Aerial methods Geomagnetic gravity Electromagnetic surveys
7.1.5 On-site Seismic surveys geochemical surveys
7.1.6 satellite images
7.2 Mining
7.2.1 Removal of the resource from the ground
7.2.2 WA dependant
7.2.3 oil and gas= drilling
7.3 Enrichment
7.3.1 concentration of the resource
7.3.2 sometimes removing materials which aren't needed
7.4 Extraction
7.4.1 the process of removing the material from the ground

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