(3) Bolsheviks rule, the civil war and the Red Terror


A level Russia History ((6) Lenin) Mind Map on (3) Bolsheviks rule, the civil war and the Red Terror, created by Marcus Danvers on 11/07/2014.
Marcus  Danvers
Mind Map by Marcus Danvers, updated more than 1 year ago
Marcus  Danvers
Created by Marcus Danvers over 8 years ago

Resource summary

(3) Bolsheviks rule, the civil war and the Red Terror
  1. Civil War - Reds and Whites
    1. Inevitablt, Many enermy
      1. Lenin Shot three times by a Socialist
        1. end of 1918 - enermy of Bolshevik - white want to crush them
          1. Three white army marches towards bolshervik territor
            1. Who were the red
              1. Bolsherviks - aim to keep in control
              2. Who were the whites?
                1. Liberal, former tsarist, nationalist, separalists, socialist, Revolutionaries, moderate socialists
                2. Red controlled
                  1. Petrograd, Moscow, Tsaritsy (Stalingrad) - industrial town and cities
                  2. Whites contolled
                    1. Yandenich in Estonia - go to outskirts of Petrograd turned back by Red Forces
                      1. Denikin and wrangel in the south - in south attacked Tsaritsyn succedful defenced named Stalingrad
                        1. 1919 offensive came 340Km of Moscow - Trotsky organised a successful counterattack - white retreat - held out until 1920 when had to be evacuated at the Crimean peninsula by France and Britain
                        2. Makhno's Insurgent Army Ukraine - Green army fight both sides - supported decentralised control, problem for centralised Bolsheviks - became a regiment in the red army, when war won greens were crushed - Makhno escaped to Romania
                          1. Kolchak in the east - 140,000 Czech legion - initially successful takening Kazan and Samara by June 1918 - Autumn of 1919 red offensive forced Kolchak it retreat - Captured and shot in 1920
                          2. Red kepted control due to industrial region and biggest citys and defensive reason
                            1. Reds Leaders
                              1. Josephine Starlin, Lenin, Trotsky
                              2. Leaders Whites
                                1. General Yandenich, Denikin, Admiral Kolchak, Makhno's
                                2. Red Methods of control
                                  1. Red Army Conscription May 1918
                                    1. Red Terror
                                      1. Murder of Tsar and his Family 1918 June
                                        1. Rationing of food and resources
                                        2. Whites control
                                          1. Controlled the country side
                                        3. Red control area's
                                          1. Serve food shortages
                                            1. Inflation wiped out grain prices
                                              1. 4/5 of income went on food
                                                1. Red army sent by Lenin takes grain by force - need in the city - as peasant are not sell them
                                                2. Bolsheviks managed to keep control - three main reasons
                                                  1. Physical control / Impact
                                                    1. Red Terror
                                                      1. Main features of the"Red Terror"
                                                        1. The bourgeoise were driven from their homes, deprived of food rations and forced to do degrading work
                                                          1. Some times indiscriminately shot
                                                          2. In August 1918, Lenin ordered the implementation of a ruthless mass terror against the Kulaks, priests and White Guards - conducted by loyal men
                                                            1. All suspicious persons were detained in concentration camps.
                                                              1. Former officials, landlords and priests were executed and whole families wiped out for no reason other than being once rich
                                                              2. Peasants who resisted the requisitioning of their crops were punished, often by shooting
                                                                1. Industrial unrest was similary crushed
                                                                  1. In many cases the class, educational experience and profession of the arrested person was sufficient to determine the fate of the accused
                                                                    1. Murder of the ex-tsar family was a key decision of the "Red Terror"
                                                                      1. Summer of 1918, units of the Czech Legion closed in on Ekaterinburg, their place of confinement
                                                                        1. If Tsar captured become white rally
                                                                          1. Took action into there own hand (no direct instruction from Moscow). Midnight 16 July 1918, Royal family was shot - attempt to disguise their remains
                                                                            1. No code of laws, even revolutionary Justice, could admit the "execution" of the former tsar's physician, cook, chambermaid and waiter - Later Trotsky commented that "under judical procedures, of couse, execution of the family would have been impossible"
                                                                        2. War Communism
                                                                          1. peoples response to War Communism
                                                                            1. Trotsky used the Cheka to establish control and ensure the loyalty of the people
                                                                              1. Russia found that they either had to be for or aginst one side or the other
                                                                                1. largely determined by which side controlled your area
                                                                                2. Hostages were taken and there were mass executions and other outrages by both the Reds and Whites
                                                                                  1. Red used indiscriminate murder and wholesale atrocities
                                                                                  2. Peasant reluctant to give up grain - requisition proved difficult
                                                                                    1. Village would sized the weapons of the armed forced sent to take the grain
                                                                                3. Control over Army
                                                                                  1. The Petrograd sailors revolt was put with forces with the help from a near by military batalion
                                                                                4. Economic Control / Impact
                                                                                  1. War Communism
                                                                                    1. Polices adopted to maintain the red Army - Nationalisation of all production and distribution in red areas
                                                                                      1. Main features of War Communism
                                                                                        1. All factories and business were nationisled in November 1920 - gear for war. Workers worked long hours without wages - rewards was a meagre ration of food some clothing and lodgings
                                                                                          1. Soliders went into the villages and confiscated crops and livestock. Measures were very unpopular and, as the peasants grew less had to hide food - food shortages worse - back his measures with the CHEKA - strikes were considered acts of treason
                                                                                            1. There was a ban on private trade and rationing system was intro
                                                                                              1. Money lost all value - system of bartering instead.
                                                                                              2. Effects of war Communism
                                                                                                1. War Communism involved ruthless treatment of the peasants
                                                                                                  1. Not worth growing food for the Communist to steal and reduced their sowings - acute food shortages 1920 famine 1921
                                                                                                  2. 7.5 million and 10 million Russian died during the Civil War most civilances
                                                                                                    1. Hunger, Disease, typhus - main culprits caused by the constant movement of lousy troops, lack of soap and hot water, combined with malnutrition
                                                                                                    2. Commissarist of Supplies responsibel for feeding the army and cities - exact grain from the Kulaks. Requisition upset the partership of proletariat
                                                                                                      1. Townspeople fled to the country - more food in countryside
                                                                                                        1. Dember 1920 the pop of 40 capitals had fallen by 33% compared with 1917 - Petrograd 57.5% and Moscow 44.5%
                                                                                                          1. Black market grew
                                                                                                          2. Industrial output fell - strikes increased - Petrograd naval base sailors strikes, blow to the regime as original supporters of October Revolution
                                                                                                      2. Social Control / Impact
                                                                                                        1. Control over the army
                                                                                                          1. Having charismatic Leaders
                                                                                                            1. When Trotsky can on his armared train to a particular front the moral of the Red solider would be lifted
                                                                                                              1. Lenin was a man of considerable personal and organisational skills
                                                                                                              2. The fact that they had won the Civil War meant that the Red Soliders would trusted the Bolsheviks judgment
                                                                                                                1. The Red Army were united with the same ideologies as there leaders
                                                                                                              3. Political Control / Impact
                                                                                                                1. Red Terror
                                                                                                                  1. Events leading to the outbreak
                                                                                                                    1. On 30 August 1918, after speaking at a labour rally in Moscow, Lenin was shot and seriously wounded by Fanya Kaplan
                                                                                                                      1. Claimed he was a traitor to the revolution
                                                                                                                        1. She was executed three days later
                                                                                                                        2. Petrograd Cheka was murdered on same day as assassination attempt
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                                                                                                                  5. War Communism
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                                                                                                                  4. Civil War
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